Ghulam Ahmed Perwez

Indian-Pakistani Islamic scholar (1903–1985)

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez
غلام احمد پرویز
Ghulam Ahmad Parwez.png
Born
Ghulam Ahmad Parwez

9 July 1903
Died24 February 1985(1985-02-24) (aged 82)[1]
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
NationalityPakistani
OccupationSenior Civil Servant, Department of Interior Ministry, Government of India and later, Department of Home and Interior Affairs, Karachi, Pakistan
Known forIslam: A Challenge to Religion; Exposition of the Holy Qur'an; The Quranic System of Sustenance; What Is Islam

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez (Punjabi: غلام احمد پرویز; 1903–1985), widely known as Allama Parwez, was a pioneer of Quranic doctrine from pre-Independence India and later Pakistan.[2] He attempted to rationally interpret Quranic themes, by challenging the established Sunni doctrine.[3][4] Many conservative Islamic scholars criticized Parwez throughout his active years, although Parwez was well regarded among the educated demographic. Nadeem F. Paracha has called Parwez's Islam: A Challenge to Religion one of the most influential books in the history of Pakistan.[5]

Early and personal life

Parwez was born in Batala, Punjab, in British India (Present day Punjab, India) on 9 July 1903. He migrated to Pakistan in 1947. He studied Quran and other Islamic literature. In 1934, he received a master's degree from the Punjab University.[6][7] His views promoted understanding Islam in the context of modern science. Muhammad Iqbal introduced him to Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Later, Jinnah appointed him to edit the magazine Talu-e-Islam (طلوع اسلام) for the purpose of countering propaganda coming from some of the religious corners in support of Congress.[4] He died at the age of 83.[6]

Career

Parwez joined the Central Secretariat of the Government of India in 1927 and soon became an important figure in the Home Department (Establishment Division). On the emergence of Pakistan he occupied the same seat in the Central Government and took pre-mature retirement as Assistant Secretary (Class I gazetted Officer) in 1955 in order to devote his entire time towards his mission.[8] Parwez argued that his conclusions derived from the Quran were in stark contrast to both the right (capitalistic) and left (marxist) political philosophies.[9][non-primary source needed] Before the creation of Pakistan, Parwez was recruited by Muhammad Ali Jinnah in order to help popularize the need for a separate homeland for the Muslims in South Asia.[10] Parwez's thesis was that the organizational model of the state is the basic engine which drives the implementation of the Quran, and like Muhammad in Medina, those who wish to practice Islam, as it is defined in the Quran, are required to live in a state which submits to the laws of God, and not the laws of man.[11][12][non-primary source needed]

Ideas and contributions

Parwez was a strong believer of individual freedom, even so that this birth right almost overrides all forms of authority.[13] Consistent with this, Parwez "adamantly opposed" slavery, claiming that it had no justifiable basis according to the Quran. He also argued that Islam challenged the "truth", validity, and very conception of "religion".[14][15]

Parwez translated those verses in the Quran which are generally associated with "miracles", "angels" and "jinns" rationally as metaphors, without appealing to the supernatural.[16][17] Parwez also argued in favor of Islamic socialism, seeking to reorganize all aspects of society to fit in accordance with Islamic values.[18] He argued that "socialism best enforces Qur’anic dictums on property, justice and distribution of wealth" and that "the Prophet was a leader seeking to put an end to the capitalist exploitation of the Quraysh merchants and the corrupt bureaucracy of Byzantium and Persia", as well as advocating the application of science and agrarian reform to further economic development.[19] Parwez has been called a "quranist" by Nadeem F. Paracha,[20] as Parwez rejected some hadith.[21] Paracha also claimed that Parwez approved praying Namaz in Urdu.[6] These claims were disputed by Parwez himself while he was alive as a rumor spread by his opponents.[22]

Translated works

  • Exposition of the Holy Quran[23]
  • Human Fundamental Rights[24]
  • Dictionary Of the Holy Quran Vol 1-4[25][26][27][28]
  • What Is Islam[29]
  • The Quranic System of Sustenance[30]
  • Islam: A Challenge To Religion[31]
  • The Life In The Hereafter[32]
  • Islamic Way Of Living[33]
  • Letter To Tahira[34]
  • Quranic Laws[35]
  • Jihad Is Not Terrorism[36]
  • Glossary of Quranic Words[37]
  • Human and Satan[38]
  • Constitution Of Islamic State[39]

The books written by Syed Abdul Wadud, a close friend of Parwez, based on Parwez's works and ideas:

  • Conspiracies Against the Quran[40]
  • Phenomena Of Nature[41]
  • Quranocracy[42]
  • The Heavens the Earth and the Quran[43]
  • Gateway to the Quran[44]

Publications

  • Matalibul Furqaan (7 vols.)[45]
  • Lughat-ul-Quran (4 vols.)[46]
  • Mafhoom-ul-Quran (3 vols.)[47]
  • Tabweeb-ul-Quran (3 vols.)[48]
  • Nizam-e-Rabubiyyat[49]
  • Islam A Challenge to Religion (English version)[50]
  • Insaan Ne Kiya Socha (What Man Thought, A History of Human Thought)[51]
  • Islam kia he (second part of Insan ne kia socha)
  • Tasawwaf Ki Haqiqat (The reality of Islamic Mysticism[52]
  • Saleem Ke Naam (3 vols.)[53]
  • Tahira Ke Naam[54]
  • Qurani Faislay (5 vols.)[55]
  • Meraj-e-Insaaniat (about Muhammad)[56]
  • Barke toor (about Mosa)[57]
  • Joe noor (about Ibrahim)[58]
  • Shola e mastoor (about Esa)[59]
  • man(o) yazdan (Me and God, about Allah in light of the Quran)[60]
  • Shahkar-e-Risalat (a biography of Caliph Omar)[61]
  • Iblis o Adam (Satan and Man)[62]
  • Jahane farda[63]
  • Mazahebe Alam ke Asmani Kitaben[64]
  • Asbab e zwal e ummat[65]

See also

References

  1. ^ "G A Parwez | Bazme Tolue Islam Toronto".
  2. ^ Sharma, Suresh K.; Sharma, Usha (2004). Religious Heritage of India: Islam. p. 238. ISBN 9788170999607.
  3. ^ Jawed, Nasim A. Islam's Political Culture: Religion and Politics in pre-divided Pakistan. p. 107.
  4. ^ a b "The volatile fusion: Origins, rise & demise of the 'Islamic Left'". Dawn News. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  5. ^ "Shaping histories: The most influential books in Pakistan". DAWN News. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  6. ^ a b c "The rise and fall of a spiritual rebel". Daily Dawn.com. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  7. ^ "Introduction – Biography of G.A.P, taken from "The Life in the Hereafter (Translation of Jahan e Farda by Ejaz Rasool)"" (PDF). Tolue-Islam-Trust.
  8. ^ "G A Parwez | Tolu e Islam Trust". islamicdawn.com. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  9. ^ G. A. Parwez. The Quranic System of Sustenance. pp. 12, 30, 72, 127, 170.
  10. ^ "The volatile fusion: Origins, rise & demise of the 'Islamic Left'". DAWN News. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  11. ^ G.A. Parwez. "Political System Part II: Quranic System". Islam: A Challenge to Religion. pp. 230–247.
  12. ^ G. A. Parwez. The Quranic System of Sustenance. p. 57.
  13. ^ Kurzman, Charles (1998). Liberal Islam: A Source Book. p. 24. ISBN 9780195116229.
  14. ^ Singh Sevea, Iqbal (29 June 2012). The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal: Islam and Nationalism in Late Colonial India. p. 125. ISBN 9781139536394.
  15. ^ Jafrī, Maqsood (2003). The gleams of wisdom. Sigma Press.
  16. ^ Guessoum, Nidhal (30 October 2010). Islam's Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science. ISBN 9780857730756.
  17. ^ Nazer, Abdul Elah (28 April 2012). SENSE AND SENSIBILITY IN ISLAM: Linguistics, Context and Rationality. ISBN 9781469148328.
  18. ^ Daechsel, Markus (19 March 2015). Islamabad and the Politics of International Development in Pakistan. p. 198. ISBN 9781107057173.
  19. ^ Paracha, Nadeem F. (21 February 2013). "Islamic Socialism: A history from left to right". dawn.com. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  20. ^ Paracha, Nadeem (23 July 2015). "The volatile fusion: Origins, rise & demise of the 'Islamic Left'". Dawn.com. Dawn News. Retrieved 27 August 2015. Parvez was a prominent ‘Quranist’, or an Islamic scholar who insisted that for the Muslims to make progress in the modern world, Islamic thought and laws should be entirely based on modern interpretations of the Qu’ran.
  21. ^ Guessoum, Nidhal (30 October 2010). Islam's Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science. ISBN 9780857730756.
  22. ^ "Khan Adeeb". www.parwez.tv. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  23. ^ "Exposition" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  24. ^ "Human fundamental rights" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  25. ^ "Vol I" (PDF). qes.no. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  26. ^ "VII" (PDF). qes.no. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  27. ^ "VIII" (PDF). qes.no. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  28. ^ "VIV" (PDF). qes.no. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  29. ^ "What is Islam" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  30. ^ "Quranic system of sustenance" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  31. ^ "Islam a challenge" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  32. ^ "Life in the Hereafter" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  33. ^ [1][dead link]
  34. ^ "Letters to Tahira" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  35. ^ "Quranic Laws" (PDF). Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  36. ^ "Jihad is not terrorism" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  37. ^ "GLOSSARY: Terms starting with letters A-D" (PDF). Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  38. ^ "Ibleeso Aadam Book" (PDF). Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  39. ^ "Constitution of the Islamic state" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  40. ^ "Conspiracies against the Quran" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  41. ^ "Phenomena of nature" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  42. ^ "Quranocracy" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  43. ^ "The Heavens The Earth" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  44. ^ "Gateway to the Quran" (PDF). resurgentislam.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  45. ^ "Mutalib-ul-Furqaan: Volume I". Tolue Islam Trust - www.islamicdawn.com. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  46. ^ "Lugat'ul Quran" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  47. ^ "Mafhoom'ul Quran" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  48. ^ "Tabweeb'ul Quran" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  49. ^ "Nizam-e-Rabobi'at" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  50. ^ "ISLAM: A Challenge To Religion". Tolue Islam Trust - islamicdawn.com. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  51. ^ "Insaan Nay Kya Socha". Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  52. ^ "Tasawaaf ki Haqeeqat: Sufism and Islam" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  53. ^ "Saleem Kay Naam Khatoot: Part 1" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  54. ^ "Tahira Kay Naam Khatoot" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  55. ^ "Qurani Faislay: Part 1" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  56. ^ "Miraj-e-Insaniyaat: Life of Muhammad". Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  57. ^ "Parwez on Moses, Torah, Suliman, Solomon, David, Daoud, Yunus, Jonah, Ayub, Psalms and other Prophets" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  58. ^ "Parwez on Noah, Ad, Luqman, Salih, Ibraheem, Abraham, Ismael, Lut, Yusuf, Joseoph, and Shoaib" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  59. ^ "Shola-e-Mastoor: Life of Zakriya, Yahya, Isa (Jesus), People of Kahf" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  60. ^ "Mon-o-Yazdaun: Concept of God in Quran" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  61. ^ "Shahkar-e-Risalat" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  62. ^ "Iblis wa Adam: Parwez on Adam, Insaan, Malika, Iblis, Satan" (PDF). Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  63. ^ "Parwez on Heaven, Hell, Life after death, Judgement Day, Punishment". Tolueislam.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  64. ^ "Mazahibe Alam Ki Aasmani Kitabein by G A Parwez - Tolue Islam Trust". Islamicdawn.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  65. ^ "Asbabe Zawale Ummat by G A Parwez Tolue Islam Trust". Islamicdawn.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.

External links

  • Books of G.A. Parwez in English (PDF format)
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