Muhammad al-Bukhari

Persian Islamic hadith scholar (810–870)

Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl al-Bukhārī
مُحَمَّد بْنُ إسْماعِيل البُخَارِي
محمد بن إسماعيل البخاري.png
Al-Bukhārī's name in Arabic calligraphy
TitleAmir al-Mu'minīn fi al-Hadīth
Personal
Born21 July 810
13 Shawwal 194 AH
Died1 September 870(870-09-01) (aged 60)
1 Shawwal 256 AH
Khartank, Samarkand, Abbasid Caliphate
Resting placeImam Bukhari Mausoleum near Samarkand, Uzbekistan
ReligionIslam
EraIslamic Golden Age
(Abbasid era)
RegionAbbasid Caliphate
DenominationSunni
JurisprudenceSee School of jurisprudence
CreedSee School of jurisprudence
Main interest(s)Hadith, Aqidah
Notable work(s)Sahih al-Bukhari
al-Adab al-Mufrad
OccupationMuhaddith
Muslim leader

Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari (Arabic: محمد بن إسماعيل البخاري, romanizedMuḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl al-Bukhārī‎, 21 July 810–1 September 870),[note 1] commonly referred to as Imām al-Bukhāri or Imām Bukhāri, was a 9th-century Persian Muslim muhaddith. Widely regarded as one of the most important hadith scholars in the history of Islam, Al-Bukhari's extant works include the hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari, Al-Tarikh al-Kabir, and Al-Adab al-Mufrad.

Born in Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan, Al-Bukhari began learning hadith at a young age. He travelled across the Abbasid Caliphate and learned under several influential contemporary scholars. Bukhari memorized thousands of hadith narrations, compiling the Sahih al-Bukhari in 846. He spent the rest of his life teaching the hadith he had collected. Towards the end of his life, Bukhari faced false accusations of claiming that the Quran was created, which led to him being exiled from Nishapur. Subsequently, he moved to Khartank, near Samarkand.

Sahih al-Bukhari is revered as the most important hadith collection in Sunni Islam. Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, the hadith collection of Al-Bukhari's student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, are together known as the 'Sahihayn' (Arabic: صحيحين, romanizedSaḥiḥayn) and are regarded by Sunnis as the most authentic books after the Quran. It is part of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six most highly regarded collections of hadith in Sunni Islam.

Life

Ancestry and early life

Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari al-Ju'fi was born after the Friday prayer on Friday, 21 July 810 (13 Shawwal 194 AH) in the city of Bukhara in Greater Khorasan in present-day Uzbekistan.[2][3][4][5] His father was Ismail ibn Ibrahim, a scholar of hadith and a student of Malik ibn Anas, Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak, and Hammad ibn Salamah.[6][7] Ismail died while Al-Bukhari was an infant. Al-Bukhari's great-grandfather, Al-Mughirah, settled in Bukhara after accepting Islam at the hands of Bukhara's governor, Yaman al-Ju'fi. As was the custom, he became a mawla of Yaman, and his family continued to carry the nisba "al-Ju'fi."[8]

Al-Mughirah's father, Bardizbah (Persian: بردزبه), is the earliest known ancestor of Al-Bukhari according to most scholars and historians. Bardizbah was a Zoroastrian Magi. Al-Subkī is the only scholar to name Bardizbah's father, who he says was named Bazzabah (Persian: بذذبه). Little is known of both of them except that they were Persian and followed the religion of their people.[6] Historians have also not come across any information on Al-Bukhari's grandfather, Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah (Arabic: إبراهيم ابن المغيرة, romanizedIbrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrā).[6]

Travels and education

According to contemporary hadith scholar and historian Al-Dhahabi, he began studying hadith in the Hijri year 205 AH. He memorized the works of Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak while still a child. He began writing and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. In the Hijri year 210 AH, at the age of sixteen, Al-Bukhari performed the Hajj with his elder brother and widowed mother.[7][9] Al-Bukhari stayed in Mecca for two years, before moving to Medina where he wrote Qadhāyas-Sahābah wa at-Tābi'īn, a book about the companions of Muhammad and the tabi'un. He also wrote Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr during his time in Medina.[7]

Al-Bukhari is known to have travelled to most of the important Islamic learning centres of his time, including Syria, Kufa, Basra, Egypt, Yemen, and Baghdad. He studied under prominent Islamic scholars including Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ali ibn al-Madini, Yahya ibn Ma'in and Ishaq ibn Rahwayh. Al-Bukhari is known to have memorized over 600,000 hadith narrations.[7][10]

Mihna, later years and death

“The Qur'an is God’s speech, uncreated, and the acts of men are created."

Al-Bukhari[11]

According to Jonathan Brown, following Ibn Hanbal, Al-Bukhari had reportedly declared that 'reciting the Quran is an element of createdness’. Through this assertion, Al-Bukhari had sought an alternative response to the doctrines of Mu'tazilites and declared that the element of creation is applied only to humans, not the Word of God. His statements were received negatively by prominent hadith scholars and he was driven out of Nishapur.[12][13][14] Al-Bukhari, however, had only referred to the human action of reading the Qur’an, when he reportedly stated "My recitation of the Quran is created" (Arabic: لفظي بالقرآن مخلوق, romanizedLafẓī bil-Qur'āni Makhlūq).[15][16] Al-Dhahabi and Al-Subki asserted that Al-Bukhari was expelled due to the jealousy of certain scholars of Nishapur.[17]

The Imam Bukhari Mausoleum in Uzbekistan

Al-Bukhari spent the last twenty-four years of his life teaching the hadith he had collected. During the mihna, he fled to Khartank, a village near Samarkand, where he died on Friday, 1 September 870.[7][18] Today his tomb lies within the Imam Bukhari Mausoleum in Hartang, Uzbekistan, 25 kilometers from Samarkand. It was restored in 1998 after centuries of neglect and dilapidation. The mausoleum complex consists of Al-Bukhari's tomb, a mosque, a madrasa, library, and a small collection of Qurans. The modern ground-level mausoleum tombstone of Al-Bukhari is only a cenotaph, the actual grave lies within a small crypt below the structure.[19]

Works

Al-Bukhari's travels seeking and studying hadith.

Sahih al-Bukhari is considered Al-Bukhari's magnum opus. It is a collection of approximately 7,563 hadith narrations across 97 chapters creating a basis for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law. The book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. It is considered one of the most authentic collection of hadith, even ahead of Muwatta Imam Malik and Sahih Muslim. Alongside the latter, Sahih al-Bukhari is known as one of the 'Sahihayn (Two Sahihs)' and they are together part of the Kutub al-Sittah.[20]

Al-Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material. These are Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr, Al-Tarīkh al-Awsaţ, and Al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr. Of these, Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr is published and well-known, while Al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr is lost.[21] Al-Dhahabi quotes Al-Bukhari as having said, “When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the companions and the tabi'un and their statements. [...] At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon."[9] The books being referred to here were Qadhāyas-Sahābah wa at-Tābi'īn and Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr. Al-Bukhari also wrote al-Kunā on patronymics, and Al-Ḍu'afā al-Ṣaghīr on weak narrators of hadith.[22] Al-Adab al-Mufrad is a collection of hadith narrations on ethics and manners.[20][23]

In response to the accusations levied against him during his mihna, Al-Bukhari compiled the treatise Khalq Af'āl al-'Ibād, the earliest traditionalist representation of the position taken by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in which Al-Bukhari explains that the Quran is God's uncreated speech, while maintaining that God creates human actions, as the Sunnis had insisted in their attacks on the free-will position of Qadariyah. The first section of the book reports narrations from earlier scholars such as Sufyan al-Thawri that affirmed the Sunni doctrine of the uncreated nature of the Quran and condemned anyone who held the contrary position as a Jahmi or Kāfir. The second section asserts that the acts of men are created, relying on Qur'anic verses and reports from earlier traditionalist scholars like Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Qatlan. In the last part of his treatise, Al-Bukhari harshly condemned the Ahl al-Kalam, defending the traditionalist belief that sound of the Qur'an being recited is created.[24] Al-Bukhari cited Ahmad Ibn Hanbal as evidence for his position, re-affirming the latter's legacy and the former's allegiance to the Ahl al-Hadith.[25][26]

Speculation

School of jurisprudence

Scholars like Jonathan Brown assert that Al-Bukhari was of the Ahl al-Hadith, an adherent of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal’s traditionalist school, but fell victim to its most radical wing due to misunderstandings.[27] This claim is supported by Hanbalis, although members of the Shafi'i and Ẓāhirī schools levy this claim as well.[28][29] Scott Lucas argues that Al-Bukhari's legal positions were similar to those of the Ẓāhirīs and Hanbalis of his time, suggesting Al-Bukhari rejected qiyas and other forms of ra'y completely.[30][31] According to some scholars and Ash'ari theologians, including Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Bukhari was of the Ahl al-Kalam, a follower of the Kullabi school of Sunni theology.[32][12] Open Kullabis, such as the rationalist Harith al-Muhasibi, were criticized and made to relocate.[14][33] Many are of the opinion that Al-Bukhari was a mujtahid with his own madhhab.[34][35][36] Munir Ahmad asserts that historically most jurists considered him to be a muhaddith (scholar of hadith) and not a faqīh (jurist), and that as a muhaddith, he followed the Shafi'i school. However, he also evidences the opinion that Al-Bukhari was a mujtahid muṭlaq, a scholar of his own independent reasoning.[37]

Views on predestination

Al-Bukhari also rebuked those who rejected of qadar (predestination) in Sahih al-Bukhari by quoting a verse of the Quran implying that God had precisely determined all human acts.[13] According to Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Bukhari signified that if someone was to accept autonomy in creating his acts, he would be assumed to be playing God's role and so would subsequently be declared a Mushrik.[13] In another chapter, Al-Bukhari refutes the creeds of the Kharijites. According to Al-Ayni, the heading of that chapter was designed not only to refute the Kharijites but any who held similar beliefs.[13]

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ His full name, in Arabic: أبوعَبْدُالله مُحَمَّد بْنُ إسْماعِيل بْنُ إبْرَاهِيم بْنُ المُغِيرَة بْنُ بَردِزْبَه البُخَارِي الجُعْفِي, romanizedAbū ‘Abdullāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī

Citations

  1. ^ Ibn Rāhwayh, Isḥāq (1990), Balūshī, ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn (ed.), Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.), Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān, pp. 150–165
  2. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Archived from the original on 8 March 2021.
  3. ^ Melchert, Christopher. "al-Bukhārī". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele; Byers, Paula Kay, eds. (1998). "Bukhari". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale. p. 112. ISBN 9780787625436. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  5. ^ Lang, David Marshall, ed. (1971). "Bukhārī". A Guide to Eastern Literatures. Praeger. p. 33. ISBN 9780297002741. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Salaahud-Deen ibn ʿAlee ibn ʿAbdul-Maujood (December 2005). The Biography of Imam Bukhaaree. Translated by Faisal Shafeeq (1st ed.). Riyadh: Darussalam. ISBN 9960969053. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e "About - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  8. ^ Robson, J. (24 April 2012). "al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  9. ^ a b Tathkirah al-Huffath, vol. 2, pg. 104-5, al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah edition
  10. ^ al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar. Hady al-Sari, the introduction to Fath al-Bari. Darussalam Publications. pp. 8–9.
  11. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 80. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  12. ^ a b Wahab, Muhammad Rashidi, and Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar. "Peringkat Pemikiran Imam al-Ash’ari Dalam Akidah." International Journal of Islamic Thought 3 (2013): 58-70. "Disebabkan itu, al- Bukhari dalam kebanyakan perkara berkaitan dengan persoalan akidah dikatakan akan mengambil pendapat Ibn Kullab dan al-Karabisi(al-'Asqalani 2001: 1/293)"
  13. ^ a b c d Azmi, Ahmad Sanusi. "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari." Online Journal of Research in Islamic Studies 4.1 (2017): 17-26. "Supporting his master, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241/855), al-Bukhari is reported to declare that ‘reciting the Qur’an is an element of createdness’. This statement presumably proclaimed by al-Bukhari as an explanatory assertion intended to provide an alternative source of thought or reasoning for Muslims. Instead of accepting the doctrine of the Mu’tazilites (the group that champions the concept of the creation of the Qur’an), al-Bukhari appears to suggest that the element of creation is only applied to humans, not to the words of God, namely the Qur’an. The statement did, however, receive a negative response from the Muslim community, including some prominent scholars."
  14. ^ a b Melchert, Christopher. "The Piety of the Hadith folk." International Journal of Middle East Studies 34.3 (2002): 425-439. "Hadith folk in Baghdad warned those of Nishapur against the famous traditionist Bukhari, whom they then drove from the city for suggesting one's pronunciation of the Qur'an was created"
  15. ^ al-Lalaka'i, Abi al-Qāsim. Sharh Usul I'tiqād Ahl as-Sunnah wa al-Jamā'ah (in Arabic). Vol. 2. Cairo: Dar al-Hadith. p. 396.
  16. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 80. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  17. ^ Sanusi Azmi, Ahmad (April 2017). "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari". Online Journal Research in Islamic Studies. 4 (1): 23 – via Research Gate. At the crux of the disagreement regarding the meaning of apparently ambiguous terms of ‘lafz al-Qur’an’ (word of the Qur’an), in which al-Bukhari was reported to have uttered ‘lafzi bi al-Qur’an makhluq’ (my recitation of the Qur’an is created), where he is actually referring to the human action of reading the Qur’an, he was immediately at risk... . Al-Dhahabi and al-Subki related that it is due to the jealousy of some scholars of Naisabur (Nishapur)..
  18. ^ Tabish Khair (2006). Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing. Signal Books. pp. 393–. ISBN 978-1-904955-11-5. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  19. ^ "Tomb of Imam al-Bukhari". Madain Project. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  20. ^ a b Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021
  21. ^ Fihris Musannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 28-30.
  22. ^ Fihris Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 9-61, Dār al-'Āṣimah, Riyaḍ: 1410.
  23. ^ "AdabMufrad". bewley.virtualave.net. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  24. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 80–82. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  25. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 79. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9. Al-Bukhari’s allegiance to the ahl al-hadith camp and to Ibn Hanbal himself is thus obvious. Indeed, he quotes Ibn Hanbal as evidence for his position on the lafz.
  26. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 79. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  27. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 78. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9. ..it is not very accurate to employ the term “rationalist” in any sense when describing al-Bukhārī, since he was a diehard traditionalist. Rather, we should view him as a representative of Ibn Hanbal’s original traditionalist school who fell victim to its most radical wing.
  28. ^ Imam al-Bukhari. (d. 256/870; Tabaqat al-Shafi'iya, 2.212-14 [6])
  29. ^ Falih al-Dhibyani, Al-zahiriyya hiya al-madhhab al-awwal, wa al-mutakallimun 'anha yahrifun bima la ya'rifun Archived 3 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Interview with Abdul Aziz al-Harbi for Okaz. 15 July 2006, Iss. #1824. Photography by Salih Ba Habri.
  30. ^ Lucas, Scott C. (2006). "The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Ismāʿīl Al-Bukhārī and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam". Islamic Law and Society. 13 (3): 290, 312. doi:10.1163/156851906778946341.
  31. ^ Al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar (2001). Fath al-bari sharh Sahih al-Bukhari. Vol. 1. Maktabah Misr. p. 293.
  32. ^ Shakir, Zaid. "Treatise for the Seekers of Guidance." NID Publishers, 2008.
  33. ^ Sattar, Abdul. "Konstruksi Fiqh Bukhari dalam Kitab al-Jami’al-Shahih." De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah 3.1 (2011).
  34. ^ Masrur, Ali, and Imam Zainuddin Az-Zubaidi. "Imam Muhammad bin Ismail al-Bukhari (194-256 H): Kolektor Hadis Nabi Saw. paling unggul di Dunia Islam." (2018): 1-16.
  35. ^ Hasyim, Muh Fathoni. "FIKIH IMAM AL-BUKHAR1." (2009).
  36. ^ Mughal, Justice R. Dr, and Munir Ahmad. "Imam Bukhari (رحمۃ اللہ علیہ) Was a Mujtahid Mutlaq." Available at SSRN 2049357 (2012).

Sources

  • Bukhari, Imam (194-256H) اللإمام البُخاري; An educational Encyclopedia of Islam; Syed Iqbal Zaheer
  • Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021

External links

  • Islam portal

Studies

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Bukhārī".
  • Ghassan Abdul-Jabbar, Bukhari, London, 2007
  • Jonathan Brown, The canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim, Leiden 2007
  • Eerik Dickinson, The development of early Sunnite hadith criticism, Leiden 2001
  • Scott C. Lucas, "The legal principles of Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī and their relationship to classical Salafi Islam," ILS 13 (2006), 289–324
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and early hadith criticism," JAOS 121 (2001), 7–19
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and his Ṣaḥīḥ," Le Muséon 123 (2010), 425–54
  • Alphonse Mingana, An important manuscript of the traditions of Bukhārī, Cambridge 1936
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