Ottoman dynasty

Royal family of the Ottoman Empire

House of Osman
Coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire (1882–1922)
Country Ottoman Empire
Foundedc. 1299
FounderOsman I
Final ruler
Titles
TraditionsSunni Islam
Deposition
Cadet branchesOsmanoğlu family
State organisation of
the Ottoman Empire
Coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire (1882–1922)

House of Osman

Classic period
Constitutional period
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The Ottoman dynasty (Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) consisted of the members of the imperial House of Osman (Ottoman Turkish: خاندان آل عثمان, romanized: Ḫānedān-ı Āl-i ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Turkish: Osmanlılar). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe[nb 1] branch of the Oghuz Turks,[2] under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt. The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c. 1299 to 1922.

During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, and head of government, though much of the power often shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier. During the First (1876–78) and Second Constitutional Eras (1908–20) of the late Empire, a shift to a constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Vizier taking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly.

The imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922 during the Turkish War of Independence. The Republic of Turkey was declared the following year. The living members of the dynasty were initially sent into exile as personae non-gratae, though some have been allowed to return and live as private citizens in Turkey. In its current form, the family is known as the Osmanoğlu family.

History

The Ottoman dynasty operated under several basic premises: that the Sultan governed the empire's entire territory, that every male member of the dynastic family was hypothetically eligible to become Sultan, and that only one person at a time could be the Sultan.[3] Such rules were fairly standard for monarchic empires of the time. The certain processes through which men rose to the Sultanate, however, were very specific to the Ottoman Empire. To go into greater detail about these processes, the history of succession between Sultans can be divided into two eras: the period between the reign of Orhan (1323–1362), the first person to inherit the Ottoman sultanate, and the reign of Ahmed I (1603–1617); and the period following Ahmed I's reign.

Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty.

The succession process during the first period was dominated by violence and intra-familial conflict, in which the various sons of the deceased Sultan fought until only one remained alive and, thus, inherited the throne. This tradition was known as fratricide in the Ottoman Empire but may have evolved from tanistry, a similar succession procedure that existed in many Turco-Mongolian dynasties predating the Ottomans.[4] Sons of the Sultan were often given provincial territories to govern until the Sultan's death, at which point they would each vie for the throne.[5] Each son had to, according to historian H. Erdem Cipa, "demonstrate that his fortune was superior to the fortunes of his rivals", a demonstration that often took the form of military accomplishment and ruthlessness.[6] This violence was not considered particularly unexpected or unusual. As Cipa has noted, the Ottoman words for "successor" and "conflict" share the same Arabic root,[7] and indeed, all but one of the successions in this roughly 200-year period involved a resolution by combat.[8] Over time, the combat became increasingly prevalent and recognized, especially after a Jannissary uprising negated Murad II's attempt to abdicate the throne peacefully to his son, Mehmed II, in 1444. During the eventual reign of Mehmed II (1451–1481), fratricide was legalized as an official practice; during the reign of Bayezid II (1481–1512), fratricide between Bayezid II's sons occurred before Bayezid II himself died;[9] and after the reign of Murad III (1574–1595), his successor Mehmed III executed 19 brothers to claim the throne.[10]

During the second period, the tradition of fratricide was replaced by a simpler and less violent procedure. Starting with the succession from Ahmed I to Mustafa I in 1617, the Ottoman throne was inherited by the eldest male blood relative – not necessarily the son – of the Sultan, regardless of how many eligible family members were alive.[11] The change in succession procedure was likely instigated by numerous factors, including fratricide’s decline in popularity among Ottoman elites[12] and Ahmed I’s decision not to kill Mustafa when inheriting the throne from Mehmed III in 1603. With the door open for a policy change, a political debate arose between those who supported unrestricted Sultanic privilege and those who supported a stronger, centralized law system that would supersede even the Sultan’s power to an extent. Historian Baki Tezcan has argued that the latter faction – with the help of the influential şeyhülislam Hocazade Esad Efendi – was able to prevail in this instance.[11] The bloodless succession from Ahmed I to Mustafa I in 1617 "provided a reference for the eventual stabilization of the rule of Ottoman succession, the very regulation of which by an outside force was in effect a constitutional check on the dynastic prerogative," Tezcan has written.[13] The precedent set in 1617 stuck, as the eldest living family member successfully inherited the throne in each of the following 21 successions, with relatively few instances of a son inheriting the throne.[14]

Succession practices

From the fourteenth through the late sixteenth centuries, the Ottomans practiced open succession – something historian Donald Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son." During their father's lifetime, all adult sons of the reigning sultan obtained provincial governorships. Accompanied and mentored by their mothers, they would gather supporters while ostensibly following a Ghazi ethos. Upon the death of the reigning sultan, his sons would fight amongst themselves until one emerged triumphant. A Prince's proximity to Constantinople improved his chances of success, simply because he would hear of his father's death and declare himself Sultan first. A Sultan could thus hint at his preferred successor by giving a favourite son a closer governorship. Bayezid II, for instance, had to fight his brother Cem Sultan in the 1480s for the right to rule.

Occasionally, the half-brothers would begin the struggle even before the death of their father. Under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566), strife between his sons Şehzade Mustafa and Şehzade Selim (later Selim II) caused such internal turmoil that Suleiman ordered the deaths of both Şehzade Mustafa and another son, Şehzade Bayezid, leaving Şehzade Selim the sole heir.

During the reigns of Suleiman I and Selim II, the Haseki Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: خاصکى سلطان) or chief consort rose to greater prominence. Gaining power within the Imperial Harem, the favourite was able to manoeuvre to ensure the succession for one of her sons. This led to a short period of effective primogeniture. However, unlike in the earlier period, when the sultan had already defeated his brothers and potential rivals for the throne in battle, these sultans had the problem of many half-brothers who could act as the focus for rival factions. Thus, to prevent attempts at seizing the throne, reigning sultans practiced fratricide upon accession, starting with Murad I in 1362.[15] Both Murad III and his son Mehmed III had their half-brothers murdered. The killing of all the new sultan's brothers and half-brothers (who were usually quite numerous) was traditionally done by manual strangling with a silk cord. As the centuries passed, the ritual killing was gradually replaced by lifetime solitary confinement in the "Golden Cage" or kafes, a room in the harem from where the sultan's brothers could never escape, unless perchance they became heir presumptive. Some had already become mentally unstable by the time they were asked to reign.

Mehmed III was the last sultan to have previously held a provincial governorship. Sons now remained within the harem until the death of their father. This not only denied them the ability to form powerful factions capable of usurping their father but also denied them the opportunity to have children while their father remained alive. Thus, when Mehmet's son came to the throne as Ahmed I, he had no children of his own. Moreover, as a minor, there was no evidence he could have children. This had the potential to create a crisis of succession and led to a gradual end to fratricide. Ahmed had some of his brothers killed, but not Mustafa (later Mustafa I). Similarly, Osman II allowed his half-brothers Murad IV and Ibrahim to live. This led to a shift in the 17th century from a system of primogeniture to one based on agnatic seniority, in which the eldest male within the dynasty succeeded, also to guarantee adult sultans and prevent both fratricides as well as the sultanate of women. Thus, Mustafa succeeded his brother Ahmed; Suleiman II and Ahmed II succeeded their brother Mehmed IV before being succeeded in turn by Mehmed's son Mustafa II. Agnatic seniority explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his son, but usually by an uncle or brother. It also meant that potential rulers had to wait a long time in the kafes before ascending the throne, hence the old age of certain sultans upon their enthronement.[16] Although attempts were made in the 19th century to replace agnatic seniority with primogeniture, they were unsuccessful, and seniority was retained until the abolition of the sultanate in 1922.[17]

Chronology of Sultans

The Ottoman Dynasty had unusual succession practices compared to other monarchies.[18] Those succession practices changed over time, and ultimately the sultanate was abolished in 1922. Later, the House of Osman (Turkish: Osmanoğlu Ailesi) continued the latest succession practice for the head of the family.

The genealogy of the Ottoman Sultans including their mothers
Ottoman Flag.svg
Süleyman Şâh
/ Gündüz Âlp[19]
( ?–1227)
?
Ottoman Flag.svg
Ertuğrul Gazi[20]
TM-2001-500manat-Ärtogrul Gazy-b.png
أرطغرل غازی
(1227–1281)
Halime Hatun
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
1.[21]
(Gazi-Bey)
Osman Gazi[22]
Osman Gazi.jpg
عثمان غازى
1281-1326
Malhun Hatun
Mal hatun, eskişehir.jpg
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
2.
(Gazi-Bey)
Orhan Gazi
Orhan I.jpg
اورخان غازی
1326-1359
Nilüfer Hatun
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
3.
(Hüdâvendigâr)
Murad I
Muradhudavendigar.jpg
مراد اول خداوندگار
1359-1389
Gül-Çiçek Hatun
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
4.
(Yıldırım-Gazi)
Bayezid I
YıldırımBayezit4.jpg
ییلدیرم بايزيد الأول
1389-1403
Devlet Hatun
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
5.
(Çelebi-Kirişçi)
Mehmed I
Mehmed I.jpg
چلبی محمد
1421-1423
Emine
Valide Hatun
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
6.
(Koca Sultân)
Murad II
Murad II
مراد ثانى
1421-1451
Hadice Âlime
Hümâ
Valide Hatun
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
7.
(Fatih Sultân)
Mehmed
the Conqueror

II. Mehmet
محمد الثانى الفاتح
1432-1481
Emîne
Gül-Bahar
Valide Hatun

(Own mother)[23][24]
&
Sitt-î
Mükrîme Hatun

(Stepmother)[25]
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
8.
(Sultân Bayezid-î
Velî Han)

Bayezid II
Beyazid II
بايزيد ثانى
1481-1512
Gül-Bahar Hatun
(Stepmother)[26]
&
Ayşe Hatun
(Own mother)[27][28]
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg
9.
(Yavuz Sultân
Selim Han)

Selim I
Yavuz
سليم الأول
1512-1520
Star and Crescent.svg
Yavuz
The First
Ottoman Caliph

(1517-1520)
Hafîze
(Ayşe Hafsa)
Vâlide Sultân

A'ishā Hafîzā
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
10.
(Kanûnî Sultân
Süleyman Han)

Suleiman
the Magnificent

Suleiman I
القانونى‎ سليمان
1520-1566
Hürrem
Haseki Sultân

Hürem sultan
خرم سلطان
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svgStar and Crescent.svg
11.
(Sarı Selim)
Selim II
SelimII
سليم ثانى
1566-1574
Afîfe Nûr-Banû
Vâlide Sultân
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svgStar and Crescent.svg
12.
(Sefih Sultân)
Murad III
Murad III
مراد ثالث
1574-1595
Sâfiye
Vâlide Sultân
Handan
Vâlide Sultân

Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
13.
(Adlî)
Mehmed III
III. Mehmet
محمد ثالث
1595-1603
Hâlime /
Fûl-Dâne
Vâlide Sultân

[29]
Mâhirûze Hadice
Vâlide Sultân
ماہ فروز خاتون
[30][31]
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svgStar and Crescent.svg
14.
(Bakhtî)
Ahmed I
Ahmed I by John Young.jpg
احمد اول
1603-1617
Mâh-Peyker
Kösem
Vâlide Sultân
[31]
Kösem
كوسم سلطان
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
15.
(Deli)
Mustafa I
Mustafa 1.jpg
مصطفى اول
1617-1618
1622-1623
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svgStar and Crescent.svg
16.
(Genç - Şehid)
Osman II
Osman 2.jpg
عثمان ثانى
1618-1622
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
17.
(Bağdad Fatihi,
Sahib-î-Kıran)

Murad IV
Murad IV.jpg
مراد رابع
1623-1640
Turhan Hatice
Vâlide Sultân

Turhan
تورخان سلطان‎
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
18.
(Girit Fâtihi,
Şehid Han)

İbrahim Gazi
Ibrahim I.jpg
ابراهيم اول
1640-1648
Sâliha
Dil-Âşûb
Vâlide Sultân
صالحہ دل اشوب سلطان

[32][33]
Hatice Mû'azzez
Second Haseki
Sultân
معزز سلطان
Meh-Pâre
Ummetullah
(Emetullah)
Râbi'a Gül-Nûş
Vâlide Sultân
[34]
Râbi'a Gül-Nûsh
رابعه کلنوش سلطان‎
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
19.
(Avcı-Gazi)
IV. Mehmed
IV. Mehmet
محمد رابع
1648-1687
Vak'a-i Vakvakiye:
26 February 1656
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
20.
(Gazi-Han)
Süleyman II
II. Süleyman
سليمان ثانى
1687-1691
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
21.
(Gazi-Han)
Ahmed II
II. Ahmet
احمد ثانى
1691-1695
Sâliha Sebkat-î
Vâlide Sultân
صالحہ سلطان
[35][36][37]
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
22.
(Gazi-Han)
Mustafa II
Mustafa2.jpg
مصطفى ثانى
1695-1703
Edirne Vak'ası:
15 July 1703 -
22 August 1703
Şâh-Süvar
Vâlide Sultân
شھسوار سلطان
Emine
Mihr-î-Şâh
Second
Kadın Efendi
امینه مھرشاہ قادین
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svgStar and Crescent.svg
23.
(Lâle Devri
Padişâhı, Gazi)

Ahmed III
III. Ahmet
احمد ثالث
1703-1730
Patrona Halil
Rebellion:

28 September 1730
Râbi'a Şerm-î
Kadın Efendi
رابعہ شرمی قادین
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
24.
(Kambur-Gazi)
Mahmud I
Sultán Mahmud I.
محمود اول
1730-1754
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
25.
(Sofu Sultân)
Osman III
Osman III.jpg
عثمان ثالث
1754-1757
Mihr-î-Şâh
Vâlide Sultân
مھرشاہ سلطان
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
26.
(Yenilikçi Sultân)
Mustafa III
III. Mustafa (Levni)
مصطفى<ثالث
1757-1774
Ayşe
Sine-Pervar
(Seniyeperver)
Vâlide Sultân
عایشه سینه پرور سلطان

[38]
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
27.
(Islâhatçı Sultân)

Gazi-Han
Abdül Hamid I
Sultan I. Abdülhamit
عبد الحميد اول
1774-1789
Nakş-î-Dil
Vâlide Sultân
نقش دل سلطان

[39][40][41][42]
Nakşidil.JPG
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
28.
(Bestekâr Sultân,
Nizâmî, Şehid)

Selim III
III. Selim
سليم ثالث
1789-1807
Kabakçı Mustafa
İsyanı:

25 May 1807
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
29.
(Bî-gâne Sultân)
Mustafa IV
Mustafa IV.jpg
مصطفى رابع
1807-1808
Bezm-î Âlem
Vâlide Sultân
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
30.
(İnkılâpçı Sultân)
Mahmud II
Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
محمود ثانى
1808-1839
Vak'a-i Hayriye:
16 June 1826
Pertav-Nihâl
(Pertevniyâl)
Vâlide Sultân
Şevk-Efzâ
Vâlide Sultân

Şevk-efza Valide Sultan Hazretleri.JPG
Tîr-î-Müjgan
Third
Kadın Efendi

(Own mother)
&
Rahîme Pîristû
Vâlide Sultân

(Adoptive mother)
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svgStar and Crescent.svg
31.
(Tanzimâtçı Sultân)
Abdül Mecid Han
Sultan Abdülmecid - Google Art Project.jpg
عبد المجيد اول
1839-1861
Gül-Cemâl
Fourth
Kadın Efendi
Gül-İstü
(Gülistan Münire)
Forrth
Kadın Efendi

Gülistu Kadınefendi (2).jpg
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
32.
(Bedbaht - Şehid)
Abdülaziz Han
Sultan Abdulaziz I.JPG
عبد العزيز
1861-1876
Hayrân-î-Dil
Kadın Efendi
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
33.
(Deli)

Murad V

V. Murat
مراد خامس
1876
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
34.
(Ulû Sultân
Gazi-Han)

Abdül Hamid II
II. Abdülhamid
عبد الحميد ثانی
31 August 1876 -
27 Nisan 1909

First Meşrûtiyyet:
23 November 1876 -
13 February 1878
Second Meşrûtiyyet:
3 July 1908
31 March Vak'ası:
13 April 1909
Ottoman Flag.svg Osmanli-nisani.svg Star and Crescent.svg
35.
(Sultân Reşâd)
Mehmed V
V. Mehmed
محمد خامس
1909-1918
Çanakkale Savaşı:
18 March 1915
Osmanli-nisani.svgStar and Crescent.svg
36.
(Vahîd-üd-Dîn)
Mehmed VI
VI. Mehmed Vahdettin
محمد سادس
4 July 1918 -
18 November 1922

Moudros armistice:
30 October 1918

İstanbul's
Occupation:

13 November 1918
Treaty of Sèvres:
10 August 1920
Abolition of the
Ottoman Sultanate:

1 November 1922
Star and Crescent.svg Flag of Turkey.svg
((Last Ottoman)
caliph)

Abdül Mecid
Efendi

II. Abdülmecit
عبد المجيد الثانى
18 November 1922 -
Caliphate's Abolition:
3 March 1924
Ottoman Imperial Standard, Late 19th and early 20th Century.

List of heirs since 1922

The Ottoman dynasty was expelled from Turkey in 1924 and most members took on the surname Osmanoğlu, meaning "son of Osman."[43] The female members of the dynasty were allowed to return after 1951,[43] and the male members after 1973.[44] Below is a list of people who would have been heirs to the Ottoman throne following the abolition of the sultanate on 1 November 1922.[44] These people have not necessarily made any claim to the throne; for example, Ertuğrul Osman said "Democracy works well in Turkey."[45]

Rukiye Sabiha Sultan’s wedding day in 1920, left to right: Fatma Ulviye Sultan, Ayşe Hatice Hayriye Dürrüşehvar Sultan, Emine Nazikeda Kadınefendi, Rukiye Sabiha Sultan, Mehmed Ertuğrul Efendi, Şehsuvar Hanımefendi.
Ottoman Ceremonial Barbering Cape (detail), early 18th century, Turkey. LACMA textile collection.
Name Title Relationship to predecessor and Sultan Head of the House of Osman Duration as Head of the House of Osman
Mehmed VI Last Ottoman Sultan and Caliph (1918–1922)
36th Head of the House of Osman (1922–1926)[44]
Son of Sultan Abdulmejid I, grandson of Sultan Mahmud II, younger brother of Murad V, Abdul Hamid II and Mehmed V. 1 November 1922 – 16 May 1926 3 years, 196 days
Abdulmejid II Last Ottoman Caliph (1922–1924)
37th Head of the House of Osman following Mehmed VI's death (1926–1944)
First cousin of Mehmed VI, son of Sultan Abdülaziz.[44] 16 May 1926 – 23 August 1944 18 years, 99 days
Ahmed Nihad 38th Head of the House of Osman (1944–1954) First cousin twice removed of Abdulmejid II, grandson of Sultan Murad V.[44] 23 August 1944 – 4 June 1954 9 years, 285 days
Osman Fuad 39th Head of the House of Osman (1954–1973) Younger half-brother of Ahmed Nihad, grandson of Sultan Murad V.[44] 4 June 1954 – 19 May 1973 18 years, 349 days
Mehmed Abdulaziz 40th Head of the House of Osman (1973–1977) Second cousin twice removed of Osman Fuad, grandson of Sultan Abdülaziz.[44] 19 May 1973 – 19 January 1977 3 years, 245 days
Ali Vâsib 41st Head of the House of Osman (1977–1983) Second cousin twice removed of Mehmed Abdulaziz, great-grandson of Sultan Murad V.[44] 19 January 1977 – 9 December 1983 6 years, 324 days
Mehmed Orhan 42nd Head of the House of Osman (1983–1994) Second cousin once removed of Ali Vâsib, grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.[46] 9 December 1983 – 12 March 1994 10 years, 93 days
Ertuğrul Osman 43rd Head of the House of Osman (1994–2009) First cousin of Mehmed Orhan, grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.[45] 12 March 1994 – 23 September 2009 15 years, 195 days
Bayezid Osman 44th Head of the House of Osman (2009–2017) Second cousin of Ertuğrul Osman, great-grandson of Sultan Mehmed V.[47] 23 September 2009 – 6 January 2017 7 years, 105 days
Dündar Ali Osman 45th Head of the House of Osman (2017–2021) Second cousin once removed of Bayezid Osman, great-grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. 6 January 2017 – 18 January 2021 4 years, 12 days
Harun Osman 46th Head of the House of Osman (2021–present) Younger brother of Dündar Ali Osman, great-grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. 18 January 2021–present 1 year, 261 days

Family tree, showing relationships among the heads of the Ottoman dynasty

Line of succession in November 1922

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A claim which has come under criticism from many historians, who argue either that the Kayı genealogy was fabricated in the fifteenth century, or that there is otherwise insufficient evidence to believe in it.[1]

References

  1. ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7. That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century. It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah. If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it
    • Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that...
    • Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. The problem of Ottoman origins has preoccupied students of history, but because of both the absence of contemporary source materials and conflicting accounts written subsequent to the events there seems to be no basis for a definitive statement.
  2. ^ Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 13.
  3. ^ Çıpa, H. Erdem. The Making of Selim: Succession, Legitimacy, and Memory in the Early Modern Ottoman World. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2017. Page 29.
  4. ^ Fletcher, Joseph. Turco-Mongolian Monarchic Tradition in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Ukrainian Research Institute, 1979. Pages 236–251.
  5. ^ Tezcan, Baki. The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern World. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Page 46.
  6. ^ Çıpa. The Making of Selim. Page 31.
  7. ^ Çıpa. The Making of Selim. Page 29.
  8. ^ Peirce, Leslie P. The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Studies in Middle Eastern History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Page 21.
  9. ^ Tezcan. The Second Ottoman Empire. Page 46.
  10. ^ Çıpa. The Making of Selim. Page 30.
  11. ^ a b Tezcan. The Second Ottoman Empire. Page 47.
  12. ^ Peirce. The Imperial Harem. Page 102.
  13. ^ Tezcan. The Second Ottoman Empire. Page 77.
  14. ^ Peirce. The Imperial Harem. Page 22.
  15. ^ Quataert 2005, p. 91
  16. ^ Quataert, p. 92
  17. ^ Karateke 2005, p. 37–54
  18. ^ Quataert 2005, p. 90
  19. ^ İnalcık, Halil (2007). "Osmanlı Beyliği'nin Kurucusu Osman Beg". Belleten. Ankara (261): 487–490.
  20. ^ Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, vol: 11, pages: 314-315, 1995.
  21. ^ İnalcık, Halil (2007). OSMAN I (PDF). Vol. 33. İstanbul: TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi. p. 443-453. ISBN 978-9-7538-9590-3.
  22. ^ Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, vol: 33, pages: 443-453, 2007.
  23. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 112. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  24. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 136. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  25. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. pp. 113–117. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  26. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. (It is disputed that the names of Âişe and Gül-Bahar belong to two different persons or they designate two different names for the own mother of Yavuz Sultan Selim.).
  27. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 136. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. (The name of the own mother of Yavuz Sultan Selim is registered as Âişe Hâtûn from The Beylik of Dulkadir in İzahlı Osmanlı Tarihi Kronolojisi of İsmail Hami Danişmend).
  28. ^ Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, vol: 36, pages: 407-414, 2009 (Âişe Hâtûn is the daughter of Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey from Dulkadiroğulları. (Although her name was indicated as Gül-Bahar bint-i Abdü's-Samed in some sources, it can easily be understood that this is not true.)
  29. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 221. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6.
  30. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 238. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6.. (The name of Mâh-i Rûze in Persian is composed of Mâh=Moon and Rûz=Day.)
  31. ^ a b Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 224. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6.. (The name of Mâh-Peyker in Persian is composed of Mâh=Moon and Peyker=Face/Countenance. It means Moon-Faced.)
  32. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 280. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  33. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. pp. 253–254. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  34. ^ Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, vol: 14, pages: 248-249, 1996. (The name of Meh-Pâre in Persian is composed of Meh=Moon and Pâre=Piece. It means Piece of Moon.)
  35. ^ Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, vol: 36, pages: 45, 2009
  36. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 326. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  37. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 286. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6.. She is the daughter of a poor family in Azapkapı in İstanbul.
  38. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 380. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6..
  39. ^ Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, vol: 32, pages: 343-344, 2006. (She is of Caucasusian descent. It is untrue that she was from French royal family and her name was not Aimée du Buc de Rivéry.)
  40. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 356. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. (Marthe Aimée du Buc de Rivéry.)
  41. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 355. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. (Nakşîdil Sultan was of Circassian descent).
  42. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 356. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. (Nakşîdil Sultan was of Georgian descent).
  43. ^ a b Brookes, Douglas (2008). The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher: Voices from the Ottoman Harem. University of Texas Press. pp. 278, 285. ISBN 978-0-292-78335-5.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Opfell, Olga (2001). Royalty who wait: the 21 heads of formerly regnant houses of Europe. McFarland. pp. 146, 151. ISBN 978-0-7864-5057-2.
  45. ^ a b c d Bernstein, Fred. “Ertugrul Osman, Link to Ottoman Dynasty, Dies at 97”, The New York Times (24 September 2009).
  46. ^ a b c Pope, Hugh. "Oldest Ottoman to come home at last", The Independent (22 July 1992).
  47. ^ a b "'Osmanoğulları'na insanlık şehadet edecek' Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine", Zaman (27 September 2009).
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Osmanoğulları: Sürüldüler Ama Bitmediler (Hayattaki Osmanoğullarının soy agaci)". tarihvemedeniyet.org (in Turkish). 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  49. ^ "Hayatta Olan Şehzadeler". Foundation of the Ottoman Dynasty. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  50. ^ "Osmanlı Hanedanı vakıf çatısı altında toplanıyor". Sabah. 13 September 2010. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  51. ^ İbrahim Pazan (15 September 2009). "Osmanoğullarının yeni reisi Osman Bayezid Efendi Hazretleri". Netgazete. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  52. ^ Almanach de Gotha (184th ed.). Almanach de Gotha. 2000. pp. 365, 912–915.
  53. ^ Burke's Royal Families of the World (2 ed.). Burke's Peerage. 1980. p. 247.
  54. ^ "Current Living Şehzades". Official Ottoman Family Website. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ottoman Dynasty.
  • Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Usmania Empire. New York: Oxford University Press US. ISBN 9780195086775. OCLC 243767445. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
  • Quataert, Donald (2005). The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521839105. OCLC 59280221. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
  • Karateke, Hakan T. (2005). "Who is the Next Ottoman Sultan? Attempts to Change the Rule of Succession during the Nineteenth Century". In Weismann, Itzchak; Zachs, Fruma (eds.). Ottoman Reform and Muslim Regeneration: Studies in Honour of Butrus Abu-Manneb. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781850437574. OCLC 60416792. Retrieved 2 May 2009.

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