Quranism

Islamic view
Part of a series on Islam 22
AqidahSilhouette of a mosque Including:
1Salafis (Ahl-i Hadith & Wahhabis)
2Al-Ahbash & Barelvis 3Deobandis & Millî Görüş
4Alawites, Qizilbash & Bektashism; 6Jahmīyya
5Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins & Druzes
7Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat & Sūfrī 8Wahbiyyah, Nukkari & Azzabas
9Mevlevis, Süleymancıs & various Ṭarīqah
10Bahshamiyya, Bishriyya & Ikhshîdiyya
11Bektashis & Qalandaris
 Islam portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of a series on
Islam
Allah3.svg
  • Tafsir (exegesis)
  • Aqidah (creed)
  • Fiqh (jurisprudence)
  • Sharia (law)
  •  Islam portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Quran
Quran calligraphy
Characteristics
  • Category
  • Islam portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Quranism (Arabic: القرآنية, romanizedal-Qurʾāniyya; also known as Quranic Islam)[8][9] is a movement within Islam. It holds the belief that traditional religious clergy has corrupted religion, and Islamic guidance should be based strictly on the Quran, thus opposing the religious authority of all or most of the hadith literature and extra non-Quranic sources.[10][11] Quranists believe that religious laws in the Quran are already clear and complete, and can be understood without referencing outside texts.[12] Quranists claim that the vast majority of hadith literature are fabrications and that the Quran itself criticizes the hadith both in the technical sense and the general sense.[13][10][14][15][16][17] In the Muslim world, Quranists have faced opposition and have been labeled as "animals," and "apostates " in fatwas issued against them. In several countries, being a Quranist is punishable by death and/or torture.[18][19][20][21] Quranist authors who fear for their lives write anonymously or under a pseudonym.[22]

Most Quranists divide their understanding of the Quran into two parts. One part refers to parts of the Quran that reference historical events, which Quranists believe may require historical studies or hadith (although they believe even solely historical hadith should not be trusted completely) for better understanding. The other part involves the rest of the Quran which according to Quranists, forms the basis of Islam and can be understood without any reference to hadith. As a result, in matters of faith, jurisprudence, and legislation, Quranists differ with Sunnis and Shias who consider the Hadith, scholarly opinions, the opinions of the sahaba, ijma and qiyas Islam’s legislative authority in matters of law and creed in addition to the Quran.[23][24] Each hadith-espousing sect of Islam has its own distinct collection of hadith upon which its Muslims rely, but they are rejected by other sects,[25] while the Quranists reject all of the differing collections of hadith and have none of their own.[17][26][27] This methodological difference has led to considerable divergence between Quranists and Sunnis and Shia in matters of theology and law as well as understanding of the Quran.[17][28] Quranists claim that the Sunni and Shias have distorted the meaning of the verses to support their agendas.[29][30]

Quranism is similar to movements in other Abrahamic religions such as the Karaite in Judaism and the Sola Scriptura view of some Protestants.

Terminology

Most Quranists define themselves simply as "Muslims",[31] while other names used include "Quranic Muslims", "Submitters [to God]".[32][33] Other sects refer to them as "Quranists" (Arabic: قرآنيّون, romanizedQurʾāniyyūn),[34][35] and also sometimes as "reformists" or "progressive Muslims", although Quranists themselves mostly deny these names.[36]

Doctrine

Quranists believe that God's message in the Quran is clear and complete as it is and that it can be fully understood without referencing outside sources. They believe that the Quran is clear, complete, and that it can be fully understood without recourse to the hadith and sunnah.[10] Therefore, they use the Quran itself to interpret the Quran:[37]

". . . .a literal and holistic analysis of the text from a contemporary perspective and applying the exegetical principle of tafsir al-qur'an bi al-qur'an (explaining the Qur'an with the Qur'an) and the jurisprudential principle al-asl fi al-kalam al-haqiqah (the fundamental rule of speech is literalness), without refracting that Qur'anic usage through the lens of history and tradition."[38]

In the centuries following Muhammad's death, Quranists did not believe in Naskh.[39] The Kufan scholar Dirar ibn Amr's Quranist belief led him to deny in Al-Masih ad-Dajjal, Punishment of the Grave, and Shafa'ah in the 8th century.[40] The Egyptian scholar Muhammad Abu Zayd's Quranist commentaries led him to reject the belief in the Isra and Mi'raj in the early 20th century. In his rationalist Quran commentary published in 1930, which uses the Quran itself to interpret the Quran, he claimed that verse 17:1 was an allusion to the Hijrah and not Isra and Mi'raj.[41][42]

Syed Ahmad Khan argued that, while the Quran remained socially relevant, reliance on hadith limits the vast potential of the Quran to a particular cultural and historical situation.[43]

The extent to which Quranists reject the authority of the Hadith and Sunnah varies,[14] but the more established groups have thoroughly criticised the authority of the Hadith and reject it for many reasons. The most common view being the Quranists who say that Hadith is not mentioned in the Quran as a source of Islamic theology and practice, was not recorded in written form until a century after the death of Muhammad,[44] and contain internal errors and contradictions as well as contradictions with the Quran.[10][14] For Sunni Muslims, "the sunnah", i.e the sunnah (the way) of the prophet, is one of the two primary sources of Islamic law, and while the Quran has verses enjoining Muslims to obey the Prophet, the Quran never talks about "sunnah" in connection with Muhammad or other prophets. The term sunnah appears several times, including in the phrase "sunnat Allah" (way of God),[45] but not "sunnat al-nabi" (way of the prophet) – the phrase customarily used by proponents of hadith.[46]

Differences with traditional Islam

Quranists believe that the Quran is the sole source of religious law and guidance in Islam and reject the authority of sources outside of the Quran like Hadith and Sunnah. Quranists suggest that vast majority of hadith literature are forged and that the Quran criticizes the hadith both in technical sense and general sense.[13][10][14][15][16][17] Quranists claim that the Sunni and Shias have distorted the meaning of the verses to support their agenda,[29] especially in verses about women and war.[47][48] Due to these differences in theology, there are differences between traditional Islamic and Quranist practices:

Shahada (creed)

The Shahada accepted by Quranists is la ilaha illa'llah: "There is nothing worthy of worship except God".[49][50]

Salah (prayer)

Among Quranists, different views can be found in ritual prayer (salah). Vast majority of Quranist movements, like in traditional Islam, pray five times a day,[51][52] but there are also those who perform three or two daily prayers.[53] A minority of Quranists, see the Arabic word ṣalāt as a spiritual contact or a spiritual devotion to God through the observance of the Quran and worship to God, and therefore not as a standard ritual to be performed.

The blessings for Muhammad and Abraham, which are part of the traditional ritual, are not practiced by most Quranists in the call to prayer and in the prayer itself, arguing that the Quran mentions prayers are only for God, and the Quran tells believers to make no distinction between any messenger.[54]

There are other minor differences, for Quranists the woman's menstruation does not constitute an obstacle to prayer,[55] men and women are allowed to pray together in a mosque and that there is no catching up later once a prayer is missed.[56]

Wudu (ablution)

The ablution in prayer (Wudu) only includes washing the face, hands up to the elbows and stroking the head and feet, since only these steps are mentioned in the Quran.[50]

Zakat (alms tax)

In traditional Islam, giving Zakat is a religious duty and amounts to 2.5 percent of the annual income. The Quranists give Zakat based on the Quranic verses. In the opinion of many Quranists, Zakat must be paid, but the Quran does not specify a percentage because it does not appear explicitly in the Quran.[57] Other Quranists are in agreement with the 2.5 percent, but do not give the Zakat annually, but from every money they earn.[58]

Sawm (fasting)

The majority of Quranists fast for all of Ramadan, but do not see the last day of Ramadan as a holy day.[58][59]

Hajj (pilgrimage)

Extra-Quranic traditions in the Hajj, such as kissing or hugging the black stone and the symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones are rejected and seen as possible shirk by Quranists.[60][61]

Ridda (apostasy)

According to Sunni hadith, a Muslim who leaves his religion should be killed.[62] However, since Quranists do not accept hadith and no command to kill apostates can be found in the Quran, they reject this procedure. In addition, 2:256,[63] which states that "there shall be no compulsion/pressure in religion", is taken into account and everyone is allowed to freely decide on their religion.[64][65][59]

Polygamy

Quranists, unlike Sunnis and Shias, have very strict rules with regard to polygamy (having multiple wives). Some Quranist movements allow polygamy only on the condition of the adoption of orphans who have mothers and do not want to lose them, but other Quranist movements argue that although it is not explicitly banned, polygamy is a thing of the past because the regulations which are contained in the Quran are very strict and they have been fulfilled by almost nobody on Earth, therefore polygamy cannot be practiced anymore. In the extremely rare case in which it may be practiced, there is a strict limit on the number of wives, which is four.[30][66][59]

Military Jihad

Most Quranist movements interpret the "holy war" as a solely defensive war, because according to them that is the only type of war allowed in the Quran. A war is only "holy" when Muslims are threatened on their own lands. Therefore, unlike the Sunnis and Salafi-Jihadis, for the Quranists "holy war" does not refer to an offensive war against non-Muslim countries or communities in any circumstances.[30][66][59]

Food

Quranists can eat food which is prepared by Christians and Jews as stated in the Quran, but some Quranists believe that animals which are raised by Christians and Jews should still be blessed before they are eaten. According to Quranists, the Quran forbids the inflicting of pain on the animal during its slaughter, thus for them, the techniques of slaughtering animals in the Western World are illegitimate. Unlike Sunnis, Quranists can eat food with both of their hands, even with their left hands because the Quran does not forbid it.[30][66][59]

Dress code

Clothing does not play a key role in Quranism. All Quranist movements agree that Islam has no sets of traditional clothings, except the rules described in the Quran. Therefore, traditional Islamic style like beards are not necessary. What is mandatory is being modest. The men and women should hide their sexually appealing parts, and they should -symbolically or literally- lower their gaze when seeing the opposite sex and not check out their sexual parts.[30][66][59]

Hadith

Quranists believe that hadith, while not being reliable sources of religion, can be used as a reference to get an idea on historical events. They argue that there is no harm in using hadith to get a common idea on the history, while not taking them as certain historical facts. According to them, a hadith narration about history can be true or can be false, but a hadith narration adding rulings to religion is always completely false.[67] They believe that the trustworthiness of the narrator is not enough to give credibility to hadith, as, they state, it is stated in the Quran that Muhammad himself couldn't recognize who was real believer and who were hypocrite in their mind.[68] Moreover, Quranists quote Sahih Muslim 42:7147 to argue Muhammad forbid any hadith beside the Quran.[69]

Tafsir

Although there are Quranist Tafsir works, for the most part Quranists don't have Tafsir and they don't think that it is needed. They believe the Quran doesn't give anyone the authority to interpret and Allah sends guidance individually, as, they claim, said so in Quran.[66][30][59]

Other

The following aspects can be cited as further examples which, compared to traditional Islam, are rejected by Quranists or regarded as irrelevant:[30][66][59]

  • Quranists see circumcision as irrelevant.
  • Quranists see Eid al-Fitr (festival of breaking the fast) and Eid ul-Adha (Islamic festival of sacrifice) as merely cultural holidays, not holy.
  • Quranists generally do not wear Headscarves (Hijab).
  • Quranists are strictly against the torture and stoning to death of adulterers or homosexuals.
  • Quranists are against the prohibition of music, singing, drawing. This includes drawings of prophets, a practice Quranists do not forbid as long as the images are not idolised.
  • Quranists are against the prohibition for a man to wear gold or silk, to shave his beard, etc.
  • Quranists do not consider dogs unclean or to be avoided.
  • Quranists do not necessarily believe in Imam Mahdi or the Dajjal, as they are not mentioned in the Quran.

History

Early Islam

Sura al-Baqarah, verses 282–286, from an early Quranic manuscript written on vellum (mid-late 7th century CE)

Quranists date their beliefs back to the time of Muhammad, who they claim prohibited the writing of hadiths.[70][71][72] As they believe that hadith, while not being reliable sources of religion, can be used as a reference to get an idea on historical events, they point out several narrations about early Islam to support their beliefs. According to one of these narrations, one of Muhammad's companions and successor Umar, also prohibited the writing of hadith and destroyed existing collections during his rule as Caliph.[72] Similar reports claim when Umar appointed a governor to Kufa, he told him: "You will be coming to the people of a town for whom the buzzing of the Qur'an is as the buzzing of bees. Therefore, do not distract them with the Hadiths, and thus engage them. Bare the Qur'an and spare the Hadith from God's messenger!".[72]

The centrality of the Quran in the religious life of the Kufans that Umar described was quickly changing, however. A few decades later, a letter was sent to the Ummayad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan regarding the Kufans: "They abandoned the judgement of their Lord and took hadiths for their religion; and they claim that they have obtained knowledge other than from the Koran . . . They believed in a book which was not from God, written by the hands of men; they then attributed it to the Messenger of God."[73]

In the following years, the taboo against the writing and following of hadiths had receded to such an extent that the Ummayad leader Umar II ordered the first official collection of Hadith. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, were among those who wrote Hadiths at Umar II's behest.[44]

Despite the trend towards hadiths, the questioning of their authority continued during the Abbasid dynasty and existed during the time of Al-Shafi'i, when a group known as "Ahl al-Kalam" argued that the prophetic example of Muhammad "is found in following the Quran alone", rather than Hadith.[74][75] The majority of Hadith, according to them, was mere guesswork, conjecture, and bidah, while the book of God was complete and perfect, and did not require the Hadith to supplement or complement it.[76]

There were prominent scholars who rejected traditional ahadith like Dirar ibn Amr. He wrote a book titled The Contradiction Within Hadith. However, the tide had changed from the earlier centuries to such an extent that Dirar was beaten up and had to remain in hiding until his death.[77] Like Dirar ibn Amr, the scholar Abu Bakr al-Asamm also had little use for hadiths.[78]

19th century

In South Asia during the 19th century, the Ahle Quran movement formed partially in reaction to the Ahle Hadith whom they considered to be placing too much emphasis on Hadith.[79] Many Ahle Quran adherents from South Asia were formerly adherents of Ahle Hadith but found themselves incapable of accepting certain hadiths.[79] Abdullah Chakralawi, Khwaja Ahmad Din Amritsari, Chiragh Ali, and Aslam Jairajpuri were among the people who promulgated Quranist beliefs in India at the time.[79]

20th century

In Egypt during the early 20th century, the ideas of Quranists like Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi grew out of the reformist ideas of Muhammad Abduh, specifically a rejection of taqlid and an emphasis on the Quran.[80][79] Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi of Egypt "held that nothing of the Hadith was recorded until after enough time had elapsed to allow the infiltration of numerous absurd or corrupt traditions."[81] Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi wrote an article titled Al-Islam Huwa ul-Qur'an Wahdahu ('Islam is the Qur'an Alone) that appeared in the Egyptian journal Al-Manar, which argues that the Quran is sufficient as guidance:[82]

What is obligatory for man does not go beyond God's Book. If anything other than the Qur'an had been necessary for religion, the Prophet would have commanded its registration in writing, and God would have guaranteed its preservation.

— Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi

Like some of their counterparts in Egypt such as Muhammad Abu Zayd and Ahmed Subhy Mansour, some reformist scholars in Iran who adopted Quranist beliefs came from traditional institutions of higher learning. Shaykh Hadi Najmabadi, Mirza Rida Quli Shari'at-Sanglaji, Mohammad Sadeqi Tehrani, and Ayatollah Borqei were educated in traditional Shia universities in Najaf and Qom. However, they believed that some beliefs and practices that were taught in these universities, such as the veneration of Imamzadeh and a belief in Raj'a, were irrational and superstitious and had no basis in the Quran.[83] And rather than interpreting the Quran through the lens of hadith, they interpreted the Quran with the Quran (tafsir al-qur'an bi al-qur'an). These reformist beliefs provoked criticism from traditional Shia scholars like Ayatollah Khomeini, who attempted to refute the criticisms made by Sanglaji and other reformists in his book Kashf al-Asrar.[83][84][85] Quran-centered beliefs have also spread among lay Muslims like Iranian American, Ali Behzadnia, who became Deputy Minister of Health and Welfare and acting Minister of Education shortly after the Iranian Revolution. He has criticized the government in Iran for being undemocratic and totally alien to the "Islam of the Quran".[86]

Quranism also took on a political dimension in the 20th century when Muammar al-Gaddafi declared the Quran to be the constitution of Libya.[87] Gaddafi asserted the transcendence of the Quran as the sole guide to Islamic governance and the unimpeded ability of every Muslim to read and interpret it. He had begun to attack the religious establishment and several fundamental aspects of Sunni Islam. He denigrated the roles of the ulama, imams, and Islamic jurists and questioned the authenticity of the hadith, and thereby the sunna, as a basis for Islamic law.

Criticism and persecution

Diagram showing the branches of Sunnism, Shi'ism, Ibadism, Quranism, Non-denominational Muslims, Ahmadiyya and Sufism.

Quranism has been criticised by Sunnis and Shias. The Sunni belief is that "the Quran needs the Sunnah more than the Sunnah needs the Quran".[88] The Sunni and Shia establishment argues that Islam can not be practised without hadith.

Quranist doctrines have grown throughout the world in the twenty-first century, and supporters have faced opposition. Quranists were labeled as "disbelievers," "animals," "apostates," and "hypocrites" in fatwas issued against them. In several countries, being a Quranist is punishable by death. Followers of the Quran-only approach are persecuted and expect sanctions. For this reason, many Quranist authors who fear for their lives write anonymously or under a pseudonym.[22]

Egypt

In Egypt, Quranists face persecution, imprisonment, torture and exile.[21][89]

Sudan

In Sudan, Quranist men were imprisoned and sentenced to death for only recognizing the Quran and rejecting the Sunnah.[18][90]

Turkey

In Turkey, Quranist ideas became particularly noticeable,[91][92] with portions of the youth either leaving Islam or converting to Quranism.[93] There has been significant Quranist scholarship in Turkey, with there being even Quranist theology professors in significant universities, including scholars like Yaşar Nuri Öztürk[94] and Caner Taslaman.[95] Some believe that there are secret Quranists even in the Diyanet itself[citation needed].

The Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet) regularly criticizes and insults Quranists, gives them no recognition and calls them kafirs (disbelievers).[96] Quranists responded with arguments and challenged them to a debate.[97]

Saudi Arabia

In Saudi Arabia, Quranism is described as apostasy, therefore punishable by death.[20] Saudi Quranist scholar, Hassan Farhan al-Maliki, was arrested and charged with death penalty for promoting ideas that have been described as "Quranist", "moderate", "tolerant", and one of opposition to the more violent and strict Saudi wahhabi ideology.[19][98][99] Other Saudi intellectuals, like Abdul Rahman al-Ahdal, continue to advocate for the abandonment of hadith and a return to the Quran.[100]

Russia

The spread of Quranist beliefs in Russia has provoked the anger of the Sunni establishment. The Russian Council of Muftis issued a fatwa against Quranism and threatened the Quranists.[101]

South Africa

In South Africa, an Oxford educated history scholar, Taj Hargey, established the Open Mosque. Hargey intended the mosque to be more open to demographics traditionally shunned by Sunni and Shia mosques, like women. Hargey describes the principles of the mosque as, "Quran-centric, gender equality, non-sectarian, inter-cultural and independent".[102] He was criticized.

Kazakhstan

The Quranists have repeatedly become a target for criticism from the Supreme Clergy of Kazakhstan.[103]

Notable organizations

Ahle Quran

Ahle Quran is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi, who described the Quran as "ahsan Hadith", meaning most perfect hadith and consequently claimed it does not need any addition.[104] His movement relies entirely on the chapters and verses of the Quran. Chakralawi's position was that the Quran itself was the most perfect source of tradition and could be exclusively followed. According to Chakralawi, Muhammad could receive only one form of revelation (wahy), and that was the Quran. He argues that the Quran was the only record of divine wisdom, the only source of Muhammad's teachings, and that it superseded the entire corpus of hadith, which came later.[104]

Izgi Amal

This is a Quranist organization in Kazakhstan whose Cyrillic name, "Ізгі амал", may be transliterated into the Latin script as İzgi amal. It has an estimated 70 to 80 thousand members. Its leader, Aslbek Musin, is the son of the former Speaker of the Majlis, Aslan Musin.[105][106]

The first true Quranist was the Prophet Muhammad, who did not follow anything except the Qur'an. Quranists are not a new direction in this respect.

— Aslbek Musin

Kala Kato

Kala Kato is a Quranist movement whose adherents reside mostly northern Nigeria,[107] with some adherents residing in Niger.[108] Kala Kato means a "man says" in the Hausa language, in reference to the sayings, or hadiths, posthumously attributed to Muhammad. Kala Kato accept only the Quran as authoritative and believe that anything that is not Kala Allah, which means what "God says" in the Hausa language, is Kala Kato.[109]

Malaysian Quranic Society

The Malaysian Quranic Society was founded by Kassim Ahmad. The movement holds several positions distinguishing it from Sunnis and Shias such as a rejection of the status of hair as being part of the awrah; therefore exhibiting a relaxation on the observance of the hijab, which according to Quranists is not in the Quran.[110]

Quran Sunnat Society

The Quran Sunnat Society is a Quranist movement in India. The movement was behind the first ever woman to lead mixed-gender congregational prayers in India.[111] It maintains an office and headquarters within Kerala.[112] There is a large community of Quranists in Kerala.[113] One of its leaders, Jamida Beevi, has also spoken out against India's triple talaq law which is mostly based on the Sunni inspired Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937.[114] The most prominent predecessor to the Quran Sunnat Society in India was from the views put forth by Ahmed Khan in the 19th century. [115]

Tolu-e-Islam

The movement was initiated by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez.[116][117][118][119] Ghulam Ahmed Pervez did not reject all hadiths; however, he accepted only hadiths that "are in accordance with the Quran or do not stain the character of the Prophet or his companions".[120] The organization publishes and distributes books, pamphlets, and recordings of Pervez's teachings.[120] Tolu-e-Islam does not belong to any political party, nor does it belong to any religious group or sect.

United Submitters International

In the United States, at the end of the 20th century, the Egyptian Quranist biochemist Rashad Khalifa, who is known as the discoverer of the Quran code (Code 19), which is a hypothetical mathematical code in the Quran, developed a theological doctrine that influenced Quranists in many other countries. With the help of computers, he carried out a numerical analysis of the Quran, which according to him clearly proved that it is of divine origin.[121] The number 19, which is mentioned in chapter 74 of the Quran as being "one of the greatest miracles" played the fundamental role,[122] which according to Khalifa can be found everywhere in the structure of the Quran, and the fact that a Quranist discovered such a big miracle proved the Quranist approach.[123] Some objected to these beliefs and, in 1990, Khalifa was assassinated by someone associated with the Sunni group Jamaat ul-Fuqra.[124]

The organization "United Submitters International" (USI) founded by Khalifa has its center in Tucson and has published a monthly newsletter with the title "Submitter's Perspective" since 1985.[31] The movement popularized the phrase: "The Quran, the whole Quran, and nothing but the Quran."[10]

A Turkish (of Kurdish descent) activist, Edip Yüksel, initially campaigned for a Quranist-Islamic revolution in Turkey, which is why he was imprisoned.[125] Later he met Khalifa and joined the organisation after witnessing the "19 miracle".[126] In 1989 he had to leave the country because of this and joined the headquarters in Tucson.[127] Yüksel and two other authors created their own translation of the Quran.[128] In some points, however, his views differ from those of Khalifa.[129]

In Malaysia, a Submitter Kassim Ahmad wrote a book in which he called for a scientific evaluation of the Hadith and the entire Islamic tradition, as these are responsible for the backwardness of Muslims.[130] He saw the Quran as the only sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad and criticized the classic Sunni view of the sunnah.[131] His book was banned in Malaysia and Ahmad was declared a heretic.[125]

Among those influenced by Khalifa's ideas include Edip Yüksel,[124] Ahmad Rashad,[132] and Nigerian High Court Judge, Isa Othman.[133]

Notable individuals

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (May 2021)

Individuals with full or partial Quranistic ideas include:

  • Kassim Ahmad (1933–2017), Malaysian intellectual, writer, poet and an educator known for his rejection of the authority of hadiths.[134][135] He was the founder of the Quranic Society of Malaysia.[136] He was arrested in 1976 and released in 1981. At the time of his death, he was working on a Malay translation of the Quran.[137]
  • Shabir Ally (born ?), Guyanese-Canadian Imam, President of the Islamic Information & Dawah Centre International in Toronto.[138][139][140][141]
  • Muammar Gaddafi ( 1942 – 20 October 2011), Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He governed Libya as the "Brotherly Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya until 2011. He ruled according to his own Third International Theory.[142][87]
  • Gamal al-Banna (1920–2013), Egyptian author and trade unionist.[143]
  • Mustafa İslamoğlu (born 1960), Turkish theologian, poet and writer. He was criticised in Turkey and received threats for his ideas that promoted logic above tradition and denying the authority of hadith,[144] who he saw to be fabricated.[145]
  • Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), Egyptian-American biochemist, professor doctor, theologian, computer expert and Islamic reformer. In his book Quran, Hadith and Islam and his English translation of the Quran, Khalifa argued that the Quran alone is the sole source of Islamic belief and practice.[10] He claimed that the Quran had a code-system based on the number 19 which proved it's divinity. He was assassinated by Sunni traditionalists on January 31, 1990.
  • Samina Ali (born at an unknown date in the late 20th century), Indian-American author and activist. She is the co-founder of American Muslim feminist organization Daughters of Hajar. She serves as the curator of Muslima: Muslim Women’s Art and Voices, a global, virtual exhibition for the International Museum of Women (IMOW), now part of Global Fund for Women.[146]
  • Sam Khalifa (born 1963), American former professional baseball player.
  • Hassan al-Maliki (born 1970), a Saudi Arabian writer, Islamic historian and Islamic scholar who has been put on trial by the Saudi establishment for his views. Al-Maliki's views have been described as "Quranist", "moderate", "tolerant", and one of opposition to the more violent and strict wahhabi ideology.[19][98]
  • Irshad Manji (born 1968), Ugandan-Canadian educator and author.
  • Ahmed Subhy Mansour (born 1949), Egyptian-American Islamic scholar.[147] He was exiled from Egypt for his views and is now living in the United States as a political refugee.[148]
  • Chekannur Maulavi (born 1936; disappeared 29 July 1993), Islamic cleric who lived in Edappal in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. He was noted for his controversial and unconventional interpretation of Islam based on the Quran alone. He disappeared on 29 July 1993 under mysterious circumstances and is now widely believed to be dead.[149]
  • Yaşar Nuri Öztürk (1951-2016), Turkish university professor of Islamic theology, lawyer, columnist and a former member of Turkish parliament.[150][151][152] He has given many conferences on Islamic thought, humanity and human rights in Turkey, the USA, Europe, the Middle East and the Balkans. In 1999 members of a violent Sunni extremist group called Great Eastern Islamic Raiders' Front (İBDA-C) confessed that they had planned an assassination attempt that never took place.[153] Öztürk passed away in 2016, due to stomach cancer.[154]
  • Ahmad Rashad (born 1949), American sportscaster (mostly with NBC Sports) and former professional football player. Ahmad Rashad studied the Arabic language and the Quran with his mentor, the late Rashad Khalifa.[132][155]
  • Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi (1881–1920),[156] Egyptian scholar and physician who focused on criticising hadith as a whole religiously from the Quran as well as based on hadithic pseudo-scientific claims on medicine.[157][158]
  • Mohamed Talbi (1921–2017), Tunisian historian and professor. He was the founder of the Association Internationale des Musulmans Coraniques (AIMC), or International Association of Quranic Muslims.[159][160]
  • Caner Taslaman (born 1968), Turkish academician, Quran expert and writer known for his works on The Big Bang theory and the scientific structure of the Quran.[161]
  • Edip Yüksel (born 1957), Turkish-Kurdish-American philosopher, lawyer, Quranist advocate, author of Nineteen: God's Signature in Nature and Scripture, Manifesto for Islamic Reform and a co-author of Quran: A Reformist Translation. He taught philosophy and logic at Pima Community College and medical ethics and criminal law courses at Brown Mackie College.[71][162]
  • In addition to these names, Quranists claim Muhammad was also a Quranist.

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ Khan, Muhammad Mojlum (2013). The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal. England: Kube Publishing. p. 2. Bengali-speaking Muslims... one of the largest linguistic groups... second only to the Arabs
  2. ^ Talbot & Singh 2009, p. 27, footnote 3. sfn error: no target: CITEREFTalbotSingh2009 (help)
  3. ^ Grim, Brian J.; Johnson, Todd M. (2013). Chapter 1: Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010 (PDF) (Report). Wiley. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  4. ^ "What are the top 200 most spoken languages?". Ethnologue. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
  5. ^ Al-Jallad, Ahmad (30 May 2011). "Polygenesis in the Arabic Dialects". Archived from the original on 15 August 2016.
  6. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom – China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)". Refworld. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  7. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), SIL Ethnologue
  8. ^ Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.38-42
  9. ^ Öztürk, Yaşar Nuri (1999). Kur'an'daki İslam. ASIN 9756779055.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Musa, Aisha Y. (2010). "The Qur'anists". Religion Compass. John Wiley & Sons. 4 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x.
  11. ^ Mansour, Ahmed Subhy (2018-03-02). Refaat, Amin (ed.). How to Understand the Holy Quran. Translated by Fathy, Ahmed. Amin Refaat.
  12. ^ Yuksel, Edip (2012-02-20). Running Like Zebras. ISBN 978-0982586730.
  13. ^ a b al-Manar 12(1911): 693–99; cited in Juynboll, Authenticity, 30; cited in D.W. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.120
  14. ^ a b c d Voss, Richard Stephen (April 1996). "Identifying Assumptions in the Hadith/Sunnah Debate". Monthly Bulletin of the International Community of Submitters. 12 (4). Archived from the original on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  15. ^ a b admin. "19.org". 19.org. Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  16. ^ a b "KUR'ANİ-BİLİMSEL-TEOLOJİ, BİLİMSEL-KUR'ANİ-TEOLOJİ VE KUR'ANİ-AHENKSEL-TEOLOJİ – Caner Taslaman" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  17. ^ a b c d "Hadis & Sünnet: Şeytani Bidatler". Teslimolanlar. Retrieved 2021-05-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ a b Zeinab Mohammed Salih: „Sudan Threatens Muslims With Death on Charges of Apostasy.“ In: The Guardian [21.1.2020].
  19. ^ a b c "Saudi Islamic scholar Dr. Al Malki at risk of execution | MENA Rights Group". www.menarights.org. Retrieved 2020-06-30.
  20. ^ a b AsiaNews.it. "The reform of Islam and the Koranists, persecuted in Saudi Arabia". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 2022-01-08. Today there are Mohamed Sharour and Ferhane El Maliki, who risks being beheaded in Saudi prisons.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ a b Ahmed Subhy Mansour: „Egypt Persecutes Muslim Moderates.“ In: The New York Times, [21.1.2020]
  22. ^ a b Musa: Ḥadīth as Scripture. 2008, S. 83.
  23. ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ahl al-Hadith". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512558-0. Archived from the original on 2019-04-27. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  24. ^ Dorman, Emre (2021). 101 Soruda Kur'an: Dini Konularda En Çok Merak Edilen Sorular. ASIN 6050616450.
  25. ^ "Şia (Şiiler) hadis kitapları hakkında bilgi verir misiniz? Bizim hadis kaynaklarımızla onlarınki çok büyük farklılıklar gösteriyor; neden böyle farklılıklar var?. » Sorularla İslamiyet". Sorularla İslamiyet (in Turkish). 2007-02-17. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  26. ^ Öztürk, Yaşar Nuri (2015). İslam Nasıl Yozlaştırıldı: Vahyin Dininden Sapmalar, Hurafeler, Bid'atlar. ASIN 9756779306.
  27. ^ "Appendix 19, Hadith & Sunna: Satanic Innovations". www.masjidtucson.org. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  28. ^ Dorman, Emre (2016). Allah'a Öğretilen Din. ASIN 6056621227.
  29. ^ a b Muhammad, A. "True Islam – Misinterpreted Verses". Quran-Islam. Retrieved 2021-05-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Yüksel, Edip (2017). Türkçe Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar. ASIN 994414309X.
  31. ^ a b "Who are Submitters and what is Submission?". masjidtucson.org. Retrieved 2021-05-23.
  32. ^ "You May Already be a Submitter!". masjidtucson.org. Retrieved 2021-05-23.
  33. ^ "Teslimiyet Dini". Teslimolanlar. Retrieved 2021-05-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ "Quranists". Minority Rights Group. November 2017. Retrieved 2021-05-23.
  35. ^ "Quranists, Islam's Outcasts". Fanack.com. Retrieved 2021-05-23.
  36. ^ Haddad, Yvonne Y.; Smith, Jane I. (3 November 2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 150–153. ISBN 978-0-19-986264-1. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  37. ^ Jens Zimmermann, Hermeneutics: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2015, pg. 90
  38. ^ Mahmoud Ayoub, Contemporary Approaches to the Qur'an and Sunnah, International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), 2012, pg. 27
  39. ^ Daniel W. Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 16–17
  40. ^ Josef Van Ess, Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. Volume 3, Brill, 2018, pp. 56–58
  41. ^ J. J. G. Jansen, The Interpretation of the Koran in Modern Egypt, E.J. Brill, 1980, pp. 87–89
  42. ^ Egypt's Quest for Cultural Orientation Archived 2008-03-08 at the Wayback Machine, Mafhoum.com, Accessed May 26, 2020
  43. ^ Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.65
  44. ^ a b "PAR246 Hadith Criticism". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
  45. ^ "Quran Smart Search. Searched: sunna". Islamicity. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  46. ^ Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.8
  47. ^ Yüksel, Edip. "Sectarian Translations". 19.org. Retrieved 2021-05-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  48. ^ Muhammad, A. "True Islam – Manipulation of 4:34". Quran-Islam. Retrieved 2021-05-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  49. ^ Sami Bakar: „Die Shahadah: Das Glaubensbekenntnis der Ergebenen.“ Online [21.8.2018].
  50. ^ a b Haddad & Smith: Mission to America. 1993, P. 163.
  51. ^ Zum Beispiel Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Vgl. Ahmad: Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan 1857–1964. 1967, S. 49.
  52. ^ "Ek 15 – Dini Görevler: Tanrı'dan Bir Armağan". Teslimolanlar. Retrieved 2021-05-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  53. ^ Vgl. Birışık: „Kurʾâniyyûn“ in Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 2002, Bd. 26, S. 429.; Yüksel; al-Shaiban; Schulte-Nafeh: Quran: A Reformist Translation. 2007, S. 507.
  54. ^ Vgl. Nguyen: United Submitters International. 2007, S. 624.; Haddad und Smith: Mission to America. 1993, S. 162.
  55. ^ Kerem Adıgüzel: „Menstruation und Beten im Islam, Fasten während der Menstruation....“ [18.7.2018].
  56. ^ Haddad und Smith: Muslim Minority Groups in American Islam. 2014, S. 153.; „Die erfundene Religion und der Koran – Kapitel 36 (1): Gebet.“ [15.5.2020].
  57. ^ „Die erfundene Religion und die Koranische Religion – Kapitel 36 (2): Almosen, Wohltätigkeit.“ [15.5.2020].
  58. ^ a b Haddad und Smith: Mission to America. 1993, S. 163.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h Öztürk, Yaşar Nuri (2012). İslam Nasıl Yozlaştırıldı / Vahyin Dininden Sapmalar, Hurafeler, Bid'atlar. Yeni Boyut. ISBN 9789756779309.
  60. ^ Joseph Islam: „The Hajj and Umrah According to the Quran.“ [3.2.2020]
  61. ^ „Die erfundene Religion und die Koranische Religion – Kapitel 36 (4): Hadsch (Pilgerfahrt).“ [3.2.2020]
  62. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah (al". amrayn.com. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  63. ^ Coranicum, Corpus. "Corpus Coranicum". corpuscoranicum.de. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  64. ^ „Das Töten von Apostaten – Ein Widerspruch zum Koran.“ [21.8.2018].
  65. ^ Ahmed Mansour: „The False Penalty Of Apostasy (Killing The Apostate).“ [21.8.2018].
  66. ^ a b c d e f Uydurulan Din ve Kuran'daki Din. Istanbul: Kuran Araştırmaları Grubu.
  67. ^ A., Muhammad. "The history of hadith – Why and when it was written? Part 1".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  68. ^ Quran 63:4
  69. ^ "Sahih Muslim 3004 - The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts - كتاب الزهد والرقائق - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Sunnah.com. Retrieved 2022-08-21.
  70. ^ https://islamfuture.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/usool-al-hadeeth-the-methodology-of-hadith-evaluation.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  71. ^ a b Musa, Aisha Y. (2008). Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-230-60535-0.
  72. ^ a b c Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp.25-29
  73. ^ Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp. 37–38
  74. ^ Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.15-16
  75. ^ excerpted from Abdur Rab, ibid, pp. 199–200.
  76. ^ Azami, M. A., Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature, Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lumpur, 92; cited in Akbarally Meherally, Myths and Realities of Hadith – A Critical Study, (published by Mostmerciful.com Publishers), Burnaby, BC, Canada, 6 Archived 2016-03-13 at the Wayback Machine; excerpted from Abdur Rab, ibid, p. 200.
  77. ^ Josef Van Ess, Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. Volume 3, Brill, 2018, pp. 35–37 and 55–57
  78. ^ Josef Van Ess, Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. Volume 2, Brill, 2017, pg. 461
  79. ^ a b c d Brown, Daniel W. (1996). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–41. ISBN 978-0-52157-077-0.
  80. ^ Rein Fernhout, Canonical Texts. Bearers of Absolute Authority. Bible, Koran, Veda, Tipitaka: A Phenomenological Study, Brill Rodopi, 1994, pp. 218–219
  81. ^ Sidqi, Muhammad Tawfiq, Al-Islam huwa al-Qur'an wahdahu, al-Manar 9 (1906), 515; cited in Brown, Daniel W. (1996). Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought. Cambridge University Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0521570778. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  82. ^ Musa, Aisha Y., Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008, p.6.
  83. ^ a b Said Amir Arjomand, Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism, State University of New York Press, 1998, pp. 160–161 and 166–167
  84. ^ Pillars, proofs and requirements of the Quran-Sufficiency Theory, along with its criticism Archived 2020-06-26 at the Wayback Machine, Profdoc.um.ac.ir, Accessed June 22, 2020
  85. ^ A Criticism of the “Qura’n-through-Qura’n Interpretation Method” of the Shiite Quraniyan Archived 2020-06-26 at the Wayback Machine, Pdmag.info, Accessed June 22, 2020
  86. ^ Edip Yuksel, Critical Thinkers for Islamic Reform: A Collection of Articles from Contemporary Thinkers on Islam, Brainbow Press, 2009, pp. 188–189
  87. ^ a b Hager (1985). Volksmacht und Islam (in German). p. 85.
  88. ^ Graham, William A. (2006). "Scripture and the Qurʾān". In McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Vol. 5. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 165. doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00180. ISBN 90-04-14743-8.
  89. ^ Ahmed Subhy Mansour, Egypt persecutes Muslim moderates Archived 2019-03-01 at the Wayback Machine, nytimes.com, Accessed February 15, 2019
  90. ^ Zeinab Mohammed Salih, Sudan threatens 25 Muslims with death on charges of apostasy Archived 2020-01-27 at the Wayback Machine, theguardian.com, Accessed February 10, 2019
  91. ^ Aisha Y. Musa, The Qur'anists Archived 2013-07-19 at the Wayback Machine, 19.org, Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  92. ^ Mustafa Akyol, "Welcome to Islamic Reformation 101", Hurriyet Daily News 1 March 2008, Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  93. ^ Öztürk: Modern Döneme Özgü Bir Kur’an Tasavvuru. 2010, S. 24.
  94. ^ Mustafa Akyol, Islam without Extremes: A Muslim Case for Liberty, W.W. Norton & Company, 2011, p. 234
  95. ^ "Associates and Affiliates". 19.org. Archived from the original on 2013-07-12. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
  96. ^ Patheos.com: „Quran, Hadiths or Both? Where Quranists and Traditional Islam Differ.“ [21.1.2020].
  97. ^ Alper Bilgili, Quran, Hadiths or Both? Where Quranists and Traditional Islam Differs Archived 2019-09-13 at the Wayback Machine,, patheos.com, Accessed February 10, 2019
  98. ^ a b "Misconceptions". quranstruelight.com. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  99. ^ Kamel Abderrahmani, The reform of Islam and the Koranists, persecuted in Saudi Arabia Archived 2019-09-16 at the Wayback Machine, asianews.com, Accessed February 15, 2019
  100. ^ Saudi writer calls for removal of Hadith books from heritage Archived 2019-12-20 at the Wayback Machine, Middleeastmonitor.com, Accessed May 26, 2020
  101. ^ Рустам Батыр, «Совет муфтиев России объявил хадисы виновными в деградации ислама» Подробнее на «БИЗНЕС Online» Archived 2019-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, business-gazeta.ru, Accessed March 4, 2019
  102. ^ Gavin Haynes, Meet the British Muslim Who's Founded a Controversial Gay-Friendly Mosque: Dr Taj Hargey is a hardcore fundamentalist, in that he only follows the teachings of the Qur'an, and none of the other footnotes beloved of modern clerics. Archived 2019-09-13 at the Wayback Machine, vice.com, Accessed March 4, 2019
  103. ^ "Наиб-муфтий шейх Мухаммад Хусейн Алсабеков: Кораниты выступают за легализацию наркоторговли". Azan.kz.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  104. ^ a b Aḥmad (1967), pp.120–121.
  105. ^ Личность и ислам (Начало. Интервью с Аслбеком Мусиным) Archived 2019-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, nm2000.kz, Accessed March 4, 2019
  106. ^ Талгат Адилов, Казахстанские кораниты: элита будущего или ответ«Ак Орды» радикальному исламу Archived 2019-07-08 at the Wayback Machine, contur.kz, Accessed March 4, 2019
  107. ^ Isa Sa'isu, Kala-Kato: Meet group with yet another perception of Islam Archived 2019-04-28 at the Wayback Machine, dailytrust.com.ng, Accessed February 10, 2019
  108. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2009, state.gov, Accessed February 10, 2019
  109. ^ Aminu Alhaji Bala, Qur’anists’ Deviant Da'wah as Reflected in Their Trends of Tafsir in Northern Nigeria Archived 2019-02-12 at the Wayback Machine, saspjournal.com, Accessed February 10, 2019
  110. ^ "Malay intellectual Kassim Ahmad dies". The Malaysian Insight. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  111. ^ Ziya Us Salam, 'I follow the Quran', frontline.thehindu.com, Accessed February 10, 2019
  112. ^ Dhillon, Amrit (30 January 2018). "Muslim woman receives death threats after leading prayers in Kerala". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  113. ^ Khan, Aftab Ahmad (2016). "Islamic Culture and the Modern World 2". Defence Journal. 20 (4): 49.
  114. ^ Jiby J Kattakayam, ‘Quran has capacity to reflect and absorb changes in society over time … it did not discriminate between men and women’ Archived 2020-06-10 at the Wayback Machine, timesofindia.indiatimes.com, Accessed February 10, 2019
  115. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-12-23. Retrieved 2020-07-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  116. ^ Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith As Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, pg. 86
  117. ^ Aisha Y. Musa, The Qur'anists Archived 2015-09-04 at the Wayback Machine, Academia.edu, Accessed April 7, 2019
  118. ^ Nadeem F. Paracha, The rise and fall of a spiritual rebel Archived 2019-04-07 at the Wayback Machine, Dawn.com, Accessed April 7, 2019
  119. ^ Nadeem F. Paracha, Crazy diamonds – V Archived 2019-04-07 at the Wayback Machine, Dawn.com, Accessed April 7, 2019
  120. ^ a b "Bazm-e-Tolu-e-Islam". Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  121. ^ Musa: The Qur’anists. 2010, S. 13.
  122. ^ Q 74:30: „Über ihr sind neunzehn.“ Übersetzung von Hartmut Bobzin: Der Koran. 2017.
  123. ^ Khan: Nineteen. 2010, S. 112.
  124. ^ a b Historic House: The story behind that building with the words 'Happiness Is Submission to God' Archived 2020-07-09 at the Wayback Machine, Tucsonweekly.com, Accessed July 7, 2020
  125. ^ a b Musa: The Qur’anists. 2010, S. 18.
  126. ^ Musa: Ḥadīth as Scripture. 2008, S. 100.
  127. ^ Haddad und Smith: Muslim Minority Groups in American Islam. 2014, S. 153.
  128. ^ Edip Yüksel; Layth Saleh al-Shaiban; Martha Schulte-Nafeh: Quran: A Reformist Translation. Brainbow Press, 2007.
  129. ^ Yüksel; al-Shaiban; Schulte-Nafeh: Quran: A Reformist Translation. 2007, S. 507.
  130. ^ Musa: Ḥadīth as Scripture. 2008, S. 93.
  131. ^ Musa: Ḥadīth as Scripture. 2008, S. 94.
  132. ^ a b Murray Olderman, Rashad Made A Name For Himself. . . Twice. Archived 2020-05-15 at the Wayback Machine, The Pittsburgh Press, Accsessed February 16, 2019
  133. ^ Muhammad Nur Alkali; Abubakar Kawu Monguno; Ballama Shettima Mustafa (January 2012). Overview of Islamic actors in northern Nigeria (PDF) (Report). Nigeria Research Network. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  134. ^ Mariam Mokhtar, Don't let the hardliners get their way Archived 2019-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, freemalaysiatoday.com, Accsessed February 16, 2019
  135. ^ Predeep Nambiar, Kassim Ahmad died a ‘beautiful death’, says daughter Archived 2019-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, freemalaysiatoday.com, February 16, 2019
  136. ^ Gatut Adisoma, QURANIC SOCIETY OF MALAYSIA ESTABLISHED Archived 2019-03-01 at the Wayback Machine, masjidtuucson.org, Accsessed February 16, 2019
  137. ^ Son regrets Kassim Ahmad unable to complete Malay translation of Quran Archived 2017-10-13 at the Wayback Machine, themalayonline.com, Accsessed February 16, 2019
  138. ^ "shabir ally – IslamiCity". www.islamicity.org. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  139. ^ Silverstein, Barbara (2019-03-25). "Rings of peace held outside Canadian mosques". The Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  140. ^ "Prominent Islamic scholar says according to Imam Abu Hanifa prayers can be offered in native language". Chitral News. 2020-06-30. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  141. ^ Folkins, Tali (2019-01-21). "Evolution of interfaith friendships led to powerful experience of 'trialogue'". Anglican Journal. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  142. ^ Islam in Libya – Gaddafi asserted the transcendence of the Quran as the sole guide to Islamic governance and the unimpeded ability of every Muslim to read and interpret it. he had begun to attack the religious establishment and several fundamental aspects of Sunni Islam. He denigrated the roles of the ulama, imams, and Islamic jurists and questioned the authenticity of the hadith, and thereby the sunna, as a basis for Islamic law.
  143. ^ A Liberal Brother at Odds With the Muslim Brotherhood Archived 2020-07-02 at the Wayback Machine, Metransparent.com, Accessed June 29, 2020
  144. ^ "Sahih hadisi inkâr eden Mustafa İslamoğlu'na Cevap – Ubeydullah Arslan" (in Turkish). YouTube. 6 March 2013. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  145. ^ "Mustafa İslamoğlu – Sahih Hadisleri İnkâr Ediyor" (in Turkish). YouTube. 23 April 2015. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  146. ^ "International Museum of Women merged with Global Fund for Women in March 2014". IMOW. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  147. ^ "About Us". Ahl-alquran.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  148. ^ Oldenburg, Don (13 May 2005). "Muslims' Unheralded Messenger". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  149. ^ Kumar, Girja (1997). The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. New Delhi: Har Anand Publications. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-8-12410-525-2.
  150. ^ "Yaşar Nuri Öztürk'ün yaşı ve sevgilisi... - Reha Muhtar – GAZETE VATAN".
  151. ^ (in Turkish) Yaşar Nuri Öztürk lost his life. – Ulusal Kanal
  152. ^ (Blog), Yurt Gazetesi (Mizah) (Basın Bildirisi) (Kayıt). "Gökçek 29 Ekim'de müstafi olmuş: Şimdi ibre Tuna'yı mı Tiryaki'yi mi gösteriyor?".
  153. ^ "İBDA-C'nin suikast timi yakalandı". www.hurriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  154. ^ Haberleri, ABChaber.com – Güncel son dakika. "İlahiyatçı Yaşar Nuri Öztürk hayatını kaybetti". ABChaber.com – Güncel son dakika haberleri.
  155. ^ Ken Shouler, Catching It All Archived 2019-03-01 at the Wayback Machine, cigaraficionado.com, Accessed February 16, 2019
  156. ^ Juynboll, G. H. A. (1969). The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature: Discussions in Modern Egypt ... Brill Archive. p. 23. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  157. ^ J.A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad, 2014: p.69
  158. ^ Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.67
  159. ^ Rachid Barnat, Tunisie-Islam : Le «musulman coranique» selon Mohamed Talbi Archived 2019-03-01 at the Wayback Machine, kapitalis.com, Accessed February 16, 2019
  160. ^ Sadok Belaid, In memorium: Mohamed Talbi (1921–2017) – (Album photos) Archived 2019-04-28 at the Wayback Machine, leaders.com, Accessed February 16, 2019
  161. ^ "Biyografi". Archived from the original on 2 November 2005.
  162. ^ Kenney, Jeffrey T.; Moosa, Ebrahim (2013). Islam in the Modern World. Routledge. p. 21.

Further reading

  • Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008. ISBN 0-230-60535-4.
  • Ali Usman Qasmi, Questioning the Authority of the Past: The Ahl al-Qur'an Movements in the Punjab, Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 0-195-47348-5.
  • Daniel Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-65394-0.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Quranism
Movements
Related topics
  • Category:Quranism
  • Islam portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Western
Abrahamic
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Other
Iranian
Eastern
East Asian
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Indian
Hinduism
Buddhism
Other
Ethnic
Altaic
Austroasiatic
Austronesian
Native
American
Tai and Miao
Tibeto-Burmese
Traditional
African
North African
Sub-Saharan
African
Other ethnic
New
religions
Syncretic
Modern
Paganism
De novo
Topics
Aspects
Theism
Religious
studies
Religion
and society
Overviews
and lists
  • Category
  • Portal